Presented to the
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO
THE CURTIS HOUSE FROM THE ROADSIDE
MARY H. NORTHEND
AUTHOR OF " COLONIAL HOMES AND THEIR FURNISHINGS
"HISTORIC HOMES OF NEW ENGLAND," ETC.
WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS
paVSLVAD * CT3S
LITTLE, BROWN, AND COMPANY
BY LITTLE, BROWN, AND COMPANY.
All rights reserved
Published, October, 1915
St up and electrotyped by J. S. Gushing Co., Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.
Louis E. CROSSCUP, BOSTON, U. S. A.
I DEDICATE THIS BOOK
TO MY FRIENDS IN MY NATIVE CITY
TO WHOM I AM INDEBTED
FOR MANY KINDNESSES
THERE is a certain fascination connected with the
remodeling of a farmhouse. Its low, raftered interior,
its weather-beaten exterior, never fail to appeal. Types
vary with the period in which they were built, but all
are of interest.
In this collection, which has been pictured with great
care, pains have been taken to show as many different
types as possible, so that the student will be able to
find numerous interesting details that can be incorpo-
rated into his contemplated remodeling. In the study
of this work I have grown to feel a deep reverence for
the old homes of our forefathers, and have come to
realize as never before the care and painstaking thor-
oughness of the old master builders.
I wish to thank the owners of these homes who
have so kindly thrown open their doors to my inspec-
tion, and who have told me the interesting stories
connected with the houses.
Acknowledgment should be made to American Homes
and Gardens for permission to use various articles of
mine which they have previously published.
In the contents of this book I trust there may be
much of value to those who are contemplating the
remodeling of a farmhouse and that the work will
bring to them the same enjoyment that the study of
the subject has brought to me.
MARY H. NORTHEND.
I. IRISTHORPE i
II. LlMOVADY 15
III. THE KITTREDGE HOUSE .... 28
IV. THE CURTIS HOUSE 38
V. GREEN MEADOWS 49
VI. NAWN FARM . . . . . .61
VII. BOULDER FARM 71
VIII. THREE ACRES 84
IX. THE ROBERT SPENCER HOUSE . . . ico
X. THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE . . .no
XI. THE DOCTOR CHARLES E. INCHES HOUSE . 124
XII. THE CHARLES MARTIN LOEFFLER HOUSE . 136
XIII. LITTLE ORCHARD 146
XIV. WlLLOWDALE 155
XV. THE GEORGE E. BARNARD ESTATE * . 166
XVI. THE W. P. ADDEN HOUSE . . . . 177
XVII. THE KATE DOUGLAS WIGGIN HOUSE . . 187
XVIII. THE FRANKLIN BRETT HOUSE . .V 198
XIX. THE GEORGE D. HALL HOUSE . . .208
XX. THE WALTER SCOTT HOPKINS HOUSE . . 220
XXI. HENRY W. WRIGHT'S HOUSE . . .231
XXII. THE HOWLAND S. CHANDLER HOUSE . . 243
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
THE CURTIS HOUSE FROM THE ROADSIDE . . . Frontispiece
IRISTHORPE, FRONT VIEW ...... 4
The Entrance Porch ...... 5
From the Garden 8
The Entrance Porch, Another View .... 9
The Dining Room, and the Living Room . . .12
The Morning Room, and the Out-door Living Room . 1 3
LIMOVADY, REAR VIEW FROM THE GARDEN . . .18
Side View . . . . . . ..19
Two Views of the Living Room . . . . 22
The Dining Room, and the Lounge . . . ' . 23
Two of the Chambers . . . . . . 26
AN OLD CAPE COD HOUSE . . . . .'27
Side View ,. 30
The Attic Chamber, and the Living Room . .31
The Kitchen .36
THE CURTIS HOUSE, THE ENTRANCE PORCH . , 37
Before Remodeling, and Remodeled . . . .42
The Hall and Unique Stairway . . ... .43
Side View, and the Dining Room . . . .48
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
GREEN MEADOWS, FRONT VIEW ..... 49
An Old-fashioned Chamber, and the Living Room . . 56
Two Views of the Den 57
NAWN FARM, FRONT VIEW . . . . .64
Rear View, and the Living Room . . . .65
Two Views of the Dining Room . . . .68
The China Closet in the Dining Room ... 69
BOULDER FARM, FRONT VIEW 74
The Front Doorway 75
The Hall 78
The Den, and the Parlor . . . . . .79
Two Views of the Dining Room . . . .84
THREE ACRES, FROM THE MAIN ROAD . . . .85
Front View . ... . . . .90
Side View . . . . . . 91
A Corner of the Living Room ..... 94
The Living Room, and the Dining Room . . . 95
THE ROBERT SPENCER HOUSE ON CAPE COD . . .100
Front View . . 101
Two Views of the Living Room . . . .106
The Attic Chambers . . . . . .107
THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE . . . B .112
The Hallway . , 113
The Sun- Parlor or Out-door Nursery, and the Library . 1 18
Two of the Chambers . . . . . .119
The Nursery, and the Service Wing . . . 1 24
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
THE CHARLES E. INCHES HOUSE, FRONT VIEW SHOWING THE
OLD WELL . . . . . . .125
Before Remodeling . . . . . . .130
Across the Lawn . . . . . .131
The Hall and Stairway, and the Living Room . . 134
THE STUDIO OPPOSITE THE CHARLES M. LOEFFLER HOUSE . 135
THE CHARLES M. LOEFFLER HOUSE BEFORE REMODELING . 138
As Remodeled . . . . . . .139
Two Views of the Living Room . . . .142
The Dining Room, and the Music Room in the Studio
Building . . . . . . . .143
LITTLE ORCHARD. THE HOUSE FROM THE DRIVEWAY . .148
The Angle of the Ell 149
The Stairway . . . . . . . .152
The Entrance Porch, and the Dining Room . . . 153
WlLLOWDALE, BEFORE REMODELING, AND THE FRONT VlEW . 158
The House from the Garden . . . . .159
A Rear View, and the Living Room . . . .162
Two of the Chambers . . . . . .163
THE GEORGE E. BARNARD HOUSE BEFORE REMODELING, AND
THE FRONT OF THE HOUSE . . ,..' ; | 166
The House from the Terrace . . . ,, . 167
The Pergola- Porch . . v .. 172
The Hall, and the Alcove in the Living Room . . 173
The Den, and the Dining Room . . . .176
THE W. P. ADDEN HOUSE . . . . 177
The Stairway .186
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
QUILLCOTE, MRS. KATE DOUGLAS WIGGIN'S SUMMER HOME . 187
The Hall ... ... 192
Two Views of the Living Room . . . . .193
The Den, and the Dining Room . . . .196
Two of the Chambers 197
THE FRANKLIN BRETT HOUSE, FRONT VIEW . , . 202
Before Remodeling, and as Remodeled . . . .203
The Pergola-Porch ..... . 206
A First-floor Vista, and the Living Room . . . 207
LONE TREE FARM . . . . . . . .212
As Finally Remodeled, and the Sun- Parlor . . .213
The Living Room, and a Corner in the Dining Room . 218
The Sewing Room, and the Den . . . .219
THE WALTER SCOTT HOPKINS HOUSE BEFORE REMODELING . 224
As Remodeled . '. . . . . .225
The Living Room . . . . . . .228
Two Views of the Dining Room . . . .229
THE HENRY W. WRIGHT HOUSE . . . . .236
The Living Room, and the Dining Room . . .237
Two Noteworthy Chambers . . . . .242
THE HOWLAND S. CHANDLER HOUSE .... 243
End View ........ 248
The Hall 249
The Sun-Parlor, and the Living Room . . . .252
The Den, and the Kitchen . . . . .253
As you drove slowly along the country road,
did you ever stop to consider the many possi-
bilities for development that lie hidden in the old
Colonial farmhouses found here and there ? Some
are situated quite a distance from the main road,
while others are placed practically on its boundary
line. Many of the types are disguised by the
unattractive additions that have been built to
accommodate the growing needs of their occupants.
Others, with sagging roofs and weather-beaten
exteriors, stand mute witnesses of the days when
our country was making history for itself. Some
of these unattractive old dwellings in their early
days sheltered the most ardent patriots of our land,
men whose gallant deeds have made them famous,
and who now lie forgotten.
Fortunately for us, these old houses were not
all built in the same century, but present a variety
of types which makes them all the more inter-
esting both to architect and house owner. The
age of the house is clearly defined in its design.
Many of the earliest examples were framed in
white pine, a wood whose lasting qualities have
been plainly shown through their power to
withstand the ravages of time. Others were con-
structed of stone or brick and are equally inter-
esting in character. From an architectural stand-
point, most of these houses, no matter how
dilapidated their condition, show good lines. To be
sure, these are often hidden under poor surround-
ings, for as the families grew larger and additions
became necessary, the new parts were often badly
placed. This makes it hard for an inexperienced
eye to detect where the old house leaves off and
the additions begin. It must be remembered that
the early tillers of the soil took little interest in
their homes save as* shelters for themselves and
families, and chose for their buildings material
that lay nearest at hand. All their ready money
was expended in the building of large and spacious
barns to house their cattle.
There is a wealth of possibilities in the recon-
struction of old farmhouses that are easily recog-
nized by the experienced eye of the architect.
The study of lines which determine the size and
design of the old building is most interesting and
teaches a lesson in old-time architecture which is
extremely fascinating. The adaptation of the
house to new and different purposes, the creation
of a picturesque result wholly unlike and yet
following the lines of the original building, calls
into play not only skilful designing but careful
Many of these old houses contain fine wood-
work which is often hidden under layer upon
layer of hideous wall-paper bought with an eye
to price rather than good taste. The fireplaces
are sometimes bricked up and plastered over to per-
mit the use of a modern "air-tight" ; the wainscot
and molding are buried under coats of unattractive
paint and give little impression of their value
until the original walls and woodwork lie bare.
Some houses, more especially those situated near
the coast and erected during the period of com-
mercial prosperity, were built by ship carpenters
and wood-carvers during dull seasons. In these,
one comes occasionally upon a wonderful old
fireplace or perchance a porch that shows artistic
carving. Many of these old dwellings naturally
show original treatment, and it is to these that
the architects of to-day turn for details to be
introduced into the modified Colonial house.
They were built by men who were forced to use
their brains, since they were unable to turn to
books for ideas.
As originally built, many of them stood with
their backs to the road, their long, sloping roofs
sweeping to the ground, their front doors opening
on to extensive farm lands. Before the door
usually stood the father and mother elm, their
graceful branches seeming to hover protectingly
over the dwellings. Many of the trees were there
when the houses were built, while others have
replaced their worthy sires and contribute a bit
of landscape picturing that adds much to the
attractiveness of the home.
In these old houses, more especially those that
are past complete restoration, the architect of to-
day frequently finds choice old woodwork. Some-
times it is a rare bit of pumpkin pine such as is
seldom seen ; again it is a fine old wainscot, or a
wonderful staircase that has been saved from the
ravages of time. Often some of these details are
introduced into another remodeled farmhouse to
replace parts too far gone to be used. The grow-
ing vogue of the country home has led to the
The Entrance Porch
restoration of many of these old-time farmhouses
and has saved many a valuable structure from
falling into decay. Fortunately the appreciation
of their possibilities came before it was too late
to save them from destruction, although many
that could have done service were allowed to go
to ruin. There are, however, many fine examples
still standing, and some of these have been altered
to suit modern uses. Little wonder the old farm-
house has come into its own, its attractiveness
after remodeling making it available for sum-
mer or all-the-y ear-round uses. To-day there is
scarcely a farm or country resort that does not
show one or more of these old-time buildings in
their new dress. Some have interesting history
connected with them and are associated with
legends that have been handed down from genera-
tion to generation. Often the house has been
photographed to show both its former appearance
and the results of the restoration. Some owners,
however, have given little thought to the original
structure, and it is left to the imagination to pic-
ture the house as it used to be.
It was six years ago, while hunting for a place
to locate a summer home, that Doctor and Mrs.
Homer Gage of Worcester, Massachusetts, dis-
covered at Shrewsbury a simple little farmhouse,
showing no claim to architectural beauty. It was
such an unattractive, plain, little building, that
only the experienced eye could discover its fine
lines. This house stood close by the dusty high-
way ; the fence which formed the boundary line
had fallen into decay, while the farm lands, run
down through hard usage, showed no trace even
of an old-fashioned garden, such as many of the
housewives of the earlier day so loved to tend.
The house was built before the Revolutionary
War, being erected in 1760, and was considered
in those days to be a good example of what a farm-
house stood for. Surely it was an excellent type,
considering the usual lines in the New England
farmhouses of that day, this small, unpreten-
tious dwelling, whose entrance door out of plumb
and windows irregularly placed made a curious
combination that was in reality fascinating and
It was two stories in height, with an attic under
the eaves, a hot little place during the summer
months and cold in winter, but good for storage
of furniture and unnecessary household belong-
ings. The roof had a pitch at the back and sloped
to meet the kitchen, which was only one story in
height. Two sturdy, six-foot chimneys had been
built on one side of the house, as stoves were
unknown in those days. The frame was of white
pine, well seasoned, and the timber hand-hewn,
with the mark of the adze plainly showing in the
beams, for it was built when honest labor prevailed
and was as stanch as in the days when the bush
stuck in the chimney or ridge-pole showed that
the carpenters' work was done. The farm build-
ings were connected with the main house and com-
prised a barn, hen-house, corn-crib, and byre, all
huddled together in the most compact kind of
way. It had not been occupied since Doctor
Brown, the original owner, paid his last visit and
left the house to its fate. The interior was not
as dilapidated as in most old houses, being in
tolerably good repair. And so, with little altera-
tion, it was used as a dwelling house, while the
new home which was being built near the center
of the estate was erected.
After the cellar was built and the foundation
partly laid, the work on the new house was stopped.
There was something about the old clapboarded
farmhouse that appealed so strongly to the new
occupants that they fell under its charm and de-
cided not to supplant it by a modern home. But
the house stood too near the road ; there was no
privacy and no freedom from dust. It was of
such solid construction, however, that its moving
could be easily accomplished. So, slowly but
surely, it slid down the hill and finally rested on
the foundations which had been designed for the
Under the direction of Mr. George Hunt Ingra-
ham, the remodeling was begun. The old lines
of the roof were left unaltered, and although more
room was needed, dormers were left out in its
reconstruction. Nothing, the new owners felt,
could so destroy the lines of the house as to break
them with intrusions such as this. The long,
unbroken skyline is one of its greatest charms, and
even the long slope at one side, reaching down and
over the one-story kitchen ell, has been carefully
retained and adds not a little to the harmonious
effect of the whole structure. At the front was
added a small porch showing Colonial treatment, in
the center of which hang graceful vases filled with
iris. The same latticed effect was carried out
across the front of the house in the space between
the windows of the first and second stories. On
either side of the main dwelling, outdoor living-
rooms were secured by the introduction of screened
The Entrance Porch. Another View
piazzas, the roofs of which were painted with
water-proof paint. One of these living-rooms opens
on to a water-garden with its arches of roses at
one side of the house. It is fitted up with willow
furniture, in the coverings of which is introduced
the prevailing flower, the iris, which is also shown
in the table cover and the shape of the vase filled
with the same flowers. The opposite porch is
also fitted up as a living-room and overlooks
the home garden. The exterior of the house is
painted white with conventional green blinds,
the chimneys following the same treatment, while
the windows remain unchanged. The massive
stone fireplaces were not taken out, although
the old kitchen chimney had to be altered slightly
in order to meet present needs. The house to-day
overlooks extensive grounds and is embowered
in a wealth of rambler roses and iris. It resembles
the old house in its lines but shows in its remodeled
form a most wonderful effect and reveals what
beautiful results can be obtained by correct
The house is named "Iristhorpe," the name
being chosen by the mistress of the house, who
since her childhood has taken great interest in
the iris because of a fairy tale told her by her
grandmother, in which the flower was supposed to
be the home of the fairies.
With modern methods of living, it would have
been an impossibility to retain the old house in
its entirety. More room was needed, and a
service department was an absolute necessity,
but in its enlargement such careful attention was
paid to carrying out the lines of the original type
that to-day it is almost an impossibility to find
where the old house leaves off, and the new one
commences. In the old structure, as it stood
facing the main road, there were three rooms in a
row on the first floor, with the kitchen ell attached
at the rear, and the upper part of the house cut
up into small rooms. In remodeling, these rooms
were changed over into morning-room, living-
room, and library, and occupy the entire front of
the house, just as they did in the original building.
They are connected with doors so carefully placed
in line that they give one the impression of greater
space than is really found at Iristhorpe. At the
rear, the old kitchen was converted into a most
attractive hallway and stairway, with closets
and lavatory located at the farther side.
The dining-room, which is at the rear of the
living-room, has been added and conforms in
every respect to the original design of the old
house. Back of this are the service rooms, which
are admirably planned and equipped with butler's
pantry, servants' dining-room, kitchen pantry, rear
hall, and stairway, together with a kitchen. In
the remodeling, the second story was divided into
four servants' bedrooms, a bathroom, and a large
sewing-room at the rear. An interesting feature
is that this department has no connection on the
second floor with any other room in the house.
The porch door opens directly into the living-
room, which has never been changed from its
original place in the old house. Its central
feature is the old fireplace, which has been
opened at the opposite side into the new
dining-room. This was originally the old kitchen
chimney and contained the brick oven. It has
been bricked in for modern use, and here, as
throughout the house, the iris motive prevails.
It is shown in the graceful andirons, in the
coverings of the Sheraton wing chair, in the sofa
pillows, and even in the lamp-shade. This room
contains fine woodwork, which is, in fact, a notice-
able feature of every part of the house, and the
Colonial idea has been carefully carried out in
all the furniture used.
The library opens out from the living-room at
the right, and from that one passes to the outdoor
living-room. On the opposite side of the living-
room is the den or morning-room, with glass doors
which open on to the porch. Here again the iris
is always the motive of decoration. In this room
particularly the old paneling has been retained,
as have the old strap hinges and latches, which,
when missing, have been replaced by others of
like design. This room was originally the doc-
tor's office, and in the cupboard was found, at the
purchase of the house, some of his old stock.
One of the most interesting rooms is the dining-
room, which contains an old brick oven and
paneling so exactly corresponding to the character
of the original that at first glance it is impossible to
differentiate between them, either in age or work-
manship. The window sashes, with their small,
well-shaped panes, give to the room an appropriate
scale, and the old iron and brass hinges and latches
lend an effective tone. The iris, charming in
nature and no less decorative in its convention-
alized form, appears here and there in the carved
woodwork and always gives a delicate twist to
the Colonial design it embellishes. The beamed
ceiling carries out the old-time idea, while won-
The Dining Room
The Living Room
The Morning Room
The Out-door Living Room
derful Japanese panels have been inserted in the
finish over the fireplace, and huge iron andirons
show an exact reproduction of the fleur-de-lis.
This flower is found also in the cushions of the
Chippendale chairs, the decoration of the table,
the china, and in a beautiful Japanese screen of
most graceful design that hides the service entrance
into this room.
The white woodwork is a noticeable feature of
the interior, where harmony has been so carefully
maintained that on entering one feels as if he were
in a really old house, rather than one restored.
It should be noted that in the architectural treat-
ment, especial consideration has been given to
lighting and air; the windows have been distrib-
uted so that the light is concentrated, giving the
rooms an effect of cheerfulness that could not be
obtained otherwise. Even the hanging of the
curtains, which are of the Colonial type, adds to
the charm of the house.
The bedrooms, on the second floor, of which
there are four, show the same low stud that is
characteristic of the lower floor. They are small
but most conveniently fitted up, even to the con-
version of a small closet, which the architect had
considered impractical for use, into an extra
bathroom. Every bit of available space has been
An unusual feature is the guest house, which
has been created in the second story of the large
stable which stands at one side of the estate.
This is especially useful for week-end parties.
The loft has been converted into a suite of bed-
rooms, pool-rooms, and a screened veranda that
can be used for sleeping accommodations.
Iristhorpe might be called a conventional farm-
house, one of the type met with on almost every
country road. It has no exterior adornment
of any kind, but is a fine example of how a pic-
turesque building can be evolved from an unat-
tractive one, and is probably one of the best
examples of remodeling that can be found. The
house is typical of the best American architecture,
and credit should be given the pioneer who first
laid the foundation of the old farmhouse. As
Iristhorpe now stands, its graceful lines cannot
be improved upon, and clever as the alterations
undoubtedly are, the great fascination that grips
us as we view the house arises from the fact that
it is a part of the early architecture, when hewn
beams were first primed together, and when dwell-
ings were erected that would endure for centuries.
FIRST the electric car and now the automobile
have solved the problem of accessibility which
until recently confronted those who would have
returned to the old homestead even sooner, had
it been nearer the town. But to-day the house
must be far away indeed if it cannot be easily
reached from the more active centers, and prob-
ably this fact more than any other has opened up
for the enjoyment of the younger generations the
natural charm of the countryside endeared to our
forefathers. In the roomy, old-fashioned farm-
houses of New England, surrounded by stately
trees and overlooking acres upon acres of rolling
pasture and meadow land, unlimited opportuni-
ties are offered for the development of the country
In remodeling these houses of the early builders,
any radical departure from the original scheme is
seldom necessary. Rather should the lines and
motives be sacredly preserved to accentuate their
old-time charm, and modern improvements intro-
duced unobtrusively and with such care that the
final result is indeed a restoration and not an
alteration. The mellowing passage of time has
dealt gently with many of our old homes, and his-
tory and romance have woven about them an
added fascination for every generation to enjoy.
When the work of restoration is commenced, the
problem of retaining this charm is often a difficult
one. In some instances it would seem as if noth-
ing short of pure inspiration had guided the hands
of the remodelers of many of the quaint and irregu-
lar old houses that stand by the side of the road.
The old house is nearly always in harmony with
its surroundings ; if it did not seem a part of the
landscape when it was built, it has at least had
time to grow into it through the years, and the
problem of all remodeling is to preserve in the
completed structure the atmosphere that will
make it appear to have always belonged where it
stands. While the first thought of our forefathers
was to provide an adequate home, they undoubt-
edly possessed a peculiar instinct in the choice of
a picturesque location. By selecting the site best
adapted to their needs, the house seemed literally
to grow out of the land, and herein lies the secret
of more than half the allurement of the old-fash-
ioned structures. The intimacy between house
and grounds seems as strong as were the family
ties of those hardy pioneers who laid the founda-
tions of American civilization.
More practical considerations in regard to the
environment than picturesqueness confront the
house owner, however, and one of the most impor-
tant is that of water supply and drainage. These
must necessarily be kept far apart. A gentle
incline is the best location for a dwelling, so that
the one may come to the house from higher ground
above, and the other be carried off below. A
hollow is bad, because the water will not readily
flow away from it ; it is always damp and hot, as
it is shut in from the breezes. On too steep a hill-
side, heavy rains will work havoc with lawns,
walks, and flower beds.
The slope of the land should be considered in
reference to the prevailing winds. The house
should be placed so that the cool breezes of summer
blow upon the living-room side and not upon the
kitchen, or all the heat and odors from cooking
will fill the rooms, and they will always be hot and
stuffy. The attractiveness of the immediate out-
look should be noted, and it is well to ascertain if
there are any objectionable features which cannot
be removed or which are likely to arise within
immediate prospect. The character and prox-
imity of the neighbors will play a large part in the
enjoyment of a summer home. If the house is
not set well back on the property, it should at least
be screened with full-grown trees and shrubbery
to obtain the seclusion desired. Old trees add
greatly not only to the attractiveness of a place
but to its actual value and comfort, for it takes a
long time to grow new trees that will provide
adequate shade from the heat of summer suns.
There is an illustration of a thus happily sit-
uated farmhouse at Georgetown, about thirty
miles from Boston, known as the Jewett house,
which was built in 1711. It is typical of an old
Dutch lean-to and has a great central chimney
twelve feet square, with four flues. Snuggled
down in the midst of rolling grass land, it made
an attractive picture in its surroundings of old
elms. It stood far back from the road and was
approached by a long lane that wound among
splendid trees to the front of the house. Like
many dwellings of this period, its back was toward
the main road, and the front door opened upon
a wide expanse of shady meadows which in the
summer were bright with many-colored wild
flowers. Between the house and the road there
was a wide stretch of green grass which has been
transformed into an old-fashioned flower garden,
planted about a small, cement-lined pool and water
This house was discovered several years ago by
a young Southerner who had come north from her
sunny home in Kentucky to find a summer abode
for her brother and herself. The house as it stood
was in a very dilapidated condition, and only an
artist would have realized its possibilities. But
about it was a warmth of atmosphere that ap-
pealed to the enthusiastic Southerner. Not the
least of its attractions were the elms that cast
their protecting shadows not only over the long
avenue which led to the house but over the dwell-
ing itself; many of them were patriarchs of the
primeval forests when their younger companions
were yet in seed; others were set out later, to
add their charm to the forsaken home.
It was purchased in 1906, and the work of
restoration was immediately commenced. The
outside was weather-beaten and guiltless of paint.
The roof sagged, and the great stone chimney
needed repair. It was propped up and made
thoroughly safe, and the old roof was entirely
rebuilt, but the original lines were closely fol-
lowed. Viewing the house as it stands to-day,
one realizes what attractive apartments can be
evolved from ugly interiors, and what interesting
results ingenuity and good judgment can bring
The interior showed coat after coat of vivid
tint and layer after layer of atrociously colored
wall-paper. The rooms, originally large and
square, had been divided and partitioned off to
meet the needs of growing families; many of
them were small and hopelessly unattractive.
But there were latent possibilities.
When the house was first purchased, the owner
went over the inside herself to discover the origi-
nal lines. As in many houses of the kind, it was
easy to restore the size of the room by following
beams and knocking out partitions. It must
be remembered that the usual plan in houses of
that period was to construct a large, square room
in the center with small rooms opening off from
it which were used as chambers.
The work of decorating, and, as far as possible,
the remodeling itself, was done by Mrs. William
Otis Kimball and her brother. Along the front of
the house a screened, outdoor living-room has been
added. The original building consisted of four
rooms on the first floor. The front door opened
into a small hall, to the right of which was the
great living-room, and to the left the dining-
room. Back of the former was a guest room,
and back of the latter the old kitchen.
In the living-room, the flooring, which was
composed of boards often two feet wide, was in
such good condition that it was left intact, treated
to a black walnut stain, and shellacked. The
height of the ceiling was but seven feet; so the
heavy beams of swamp oak were boxed in and
painted white, and the space between white-
washed. The walls, which were covered with
ten tiers of paper, each one uglier than the last,
were cleared to the boarding. The last one was
found to be a wonderfully fine landscape paper,
which showed that an early owner of the house
must have been a person of means, who probably
had it brought over in one of the merchant-ships
during the time of commercial prosperity, when
Newburyport had a lively trade with foreign
lands. The walls were treated with a water
paint colored a creamy pumpkin tint that makes
the room seem always well lighted. It is a most
inexpensive finish, such as is used by scene painters
in a theater, and can be put on with an ordinary
whitewash brush. The wainscot was stained dark
brown to harmonize with the floors. Around the
top of the room the owner painted a frieze of
conventionalized pomegranates, which follow the
color scheme of the woodwork and wall. The old
fireplace, which had been closed up, was opened,
and the over-mantel enriched with a splendidly
decorative painting by the artist herself, repre-
senting a Normandy boar hunt about 1330.
After it was remodeled, the room measured
twenty-four by twenty-six feet, the original size
when the house was first built. It is now used as
a living-room and library. Inexpensive shelves,
made of boards stained to match the wainscot,
are fastened along the walls. In places there is
a single shelf; sometimes two are placed about
twelve inches apart, and they are used for books,
pictures, and ornaments. The windows are cur-
tained with an appropriate simplicity that is
unusually attractive. Unbleached cotton is used
for the over-curtains and decorated with a border
of richly colored cretonne, corresponding in color
and conventionality of design to the painted
frieze on the walls.
Two Views of the Living Room
The Dining Room
The hallway is five feet in width and has been
kept in the original boards. They are stained
in tones of soft brown which harmonize splendidly
with the varying color schemes of the rooms that
open on either side. Opposite the entrance door
is a narrow, winding staircase whose white steps
and balustrade contrast sharply with the dark
woodwork and hand-rail. Half way up is the old
nightcap closet from which, in the early days,
our forefathers took their nightly toddy. Under-
neath the stairs is a secret closet so carefully hid-
den in the panels that only those familiar with it
can find it. This was known in Colonial days as
the "priest hole," and it was here, so the legend
runs, that French refugees were secreted during
the French and Indian wars.
The dining-room opens oil the hallway at the
left. It is a long, narrow room with a fireplace
at one side of the end nearest the hall. The
woodwork has been finished in a dark stain, and
the old corner cupboard has been kept intact.
The fireplace wall is paneled in swamp pine, and
over the mantel there is a secret panel cupboard.
The lower part of the walls is covered with dark
green burlap, and above is a decorative paper in
boldly striking colors. There is a long, refectory
dining-table in this room, made of stout oak
boards, and the other furniture has a monastic
simplicity which is entirely in keeping with the
character of the room.
The small room at the rear of the living-room
is used as a guest chamber and is known as the
missionary room. Here the walls are tinted a
soft moss green, and ornamented at the top by a
black and white frieze that pictures the different
stages of a missionary's life. He is shown from the
time of his arrival on the lonely island to his chase
and capture by a band of cannibals, and finally
being roasted amidst scenes of hilarity as they
turn his fat form on the spit.
The studio was originally the kitchen and opens
out of this room. The woodwork is of the same
dark brown tint used through all the lower story,
and the walls are hung with natural colored bur-
lap. The principal features of the room are its
fireplace and quaint Dutch oven which were
built into the center of the twelve-foot chimney
when the house was erected. From the pothook
on the crane hangs an old Colonial kettle. Of
almost equal interest are the small-paned windows
which are closed by sliding inside panels.
The present kitchen has been added at the rear.
It has white walls decorated with a frieze in which
lobsters disport themselves in different attitudes.
A small closet at one side of the passage that
leads into the kitchen has been utilized for a bath-
room. It is finished in white with a dado of tiles
painted with turtles.
When the house was first purchased, there was
an old barn on the property a short distance
away. This was moved up and connected with
the house. It opens from the dining-room and
has been converted into a lounge room, with
servants' quarters at the rear. This room is one
of the most interesting in the house. It is fin-
ished in stained pine, and the old rafters and wood-
work have been left as they originally were. The
spaces between the heavy beams of the ceiling
are white, the beams being black with a narrow
band of peacock blue above.
The originality used in finishing the house is evi-
denced nowhere better than in the chambers, on the
second floor. Each one has been decorated with a
different flower, and they are known as the holly-
hock, the sweet pea, the wistaria, and the morning-
glory room. A frieze of the particular flower has
been painted around, and the canopies and bed cov-
erings show the same design and colors in cretonne.
A small room in the barn wing, which was not
large enough to be converted into a chamber as it
stood, has been utilized for this purpose by open-
ing up a large, connecting closet into an alcove
to hold the bed. It is so arranged that at night
the bed can be pulled out into the center of the
room, and in the daytime hidden behind curtains
drawn across the alcove.
There are quaint old four-posters in all of the
bedrooms, and old-fashioned and simple fur-
niture is used throughout the house. Some of it
is home-made, and in many of the rooms are
bookcases constructed from packing-boxes, and
hung across with curtains of the cretonne used
elsewhere in the room.
In altering many old houses for modern occu-
pancy, there has been a greater expenditure than
would have been required to build an entirely
new structure. But in this instance the charm
of the old home has been retained with a con-
siderably smaller outlay than would have been
necessary to erect another of equal size and
There is an undeniable satisfaction in realizing
that all has been gotten out of a venture of this
kind that was possible, and that no offense has
Two of the Chambers
been committed against the spirit of the old house.
Every one who has attempted remodeling obtains
different results from those first planned, for as
the work proceeds, new possibilities and new limi-
tations constantly appear, till the completed build-
ing has an individuality unrealized in the be-
In Limovady, as this little country place is
named, we find a good example of what can be
done to make an old house not only a livable but
a delightful home, and it is a success such as this
that inspires other home seekers to remodel,
according to their own ideas. For no two people
will be likely to conceive the reconstruction of a
home in just the same way, and it is this stamp of
individuality that lends to the remodeled house a
large part of its charm.
THE KITTREDGE HOUSE
HAVE you ever noticed the fishermen's little
cottages that stand along the seacoast wherever
modern summer resorts have not displaced them ?
From a modern architectural point of view, they
would at first seem quite insignificant, and yet,
hidden away beneath the rough exteriors, there
are often interesting lines and good proportions.
The humble fishermen who dwelt there cared little
for external appearance, but they built their cot-
tages strong and solid and, though unpretentious,
they were comfortable.
These little old houses, seemingly commonplace
though they may be, hold much more interest for
the prospective house owner and the architect
than do the more elaborate ones of later periods.
For wherever men have utilized what skill and in-
telligence they have to satisfy definite needs in
the simplest, most straightforward way, they have
achieved something of lasting worth.
The ages of these old seacoast houses vary just
THE KITTREDGE HOUSE
as do those farther inland. Some were built long
before the Revolution and others at a much more
recent date. Some have fallen into hopeless de-
cay, while others are still stanch and habitable.
The possible purchaser should make a careful
examination both inside and out before he decides
to remodel. Sometimes, from a superficial sur-
vey, an old house may appear sturdy enough to
warrant renovation, but a closer investigation
will prove that this would be an expensive busi-
ness. For the old timbers often hold together
firmly because they have all settled together as
a unit; if any one is disturbed, the rest may be
greatly weakened or even threaten to fall apart,
like the proverbial house of cards.
The first indication of dangerous weakness is
a sagging roof. If the lines are even a little con-
cave, it is a bad sign, for the roof would not have
settled had the walls held absolutely true. Be-
cause of pressure against them, they have been
forced apart and perhaps are on the point of
tumbling down altogether. If the roof passes
its test well, then examine the line of the walls
and be sure they are absolutely vertical and have
neither spread nor fallen inward.
Next study the condition of the timbers. The
sill is the most important one. If it is badly
decayed, all the other members resting upon it
will have been thereby weakened and the whole
structure impaired. The upright timbers and
the studs will all have settled, and to straighten
them will mean practically the rebuilding of the
house. The floors and the roof which rest upon
them will be endangered. Sometimes the ends
of the uprights have rotted, and the slightest new
work about them will result in their crumbling
and undermining the beams and rafters they
support. It is often necessary to use a sharp
iron or a long knife and pry underneath the
coverings on both the exterior and the interior
to determine their condition. A little attention
given to these points will determine whether it is
worth while to attempt remodeling, or whether
the expense involved would be out of all propor-
tion to the result.
Scarcely less vital is the condition of the cellar.
Is there dampness, caused by lack of ventilation,
by bad walls, or by some inherent moisture ?
Some of these old houses have a well in the cellar ;
this should be drained off and filled up. But if
there is an actual spring of water, as not infre-
quently occurs, either move the house or abandon
The Attic Chamber
The Living Room
AN OLD CAPE COD HOUSE
THE KITTREDGE HOUSE
it. Bad walls can be cemented and waterproofed.
If the trouble comes from lack of light and air, it
may be possible to cut larger window openings.
Most old houses were set too low, however, and
it is frequently an advantage to raise them. This
requires sound underpinning, or the expense will
While considering the subject of dampness, it
is well to examine the roof and see how much it
leaks under the moss-grown shingles. If it is an
old house that is in tolerably good repair at the
present time, it may be that under some previous
owner the roof fell into decay, and rains soaked
through. Look for signs of this, for it will mean
weakness in timbers and plaster that must be
guarded against. Examine the boards of the
roof to see if they are strong enough to permit the
laying of new shingles.
The chimney is another important matter to
investigate. In old houses which have not been
used for some time, the bricks often deteriorate
and become so soft that they crumble at the touch.
This would necessitate the not inconsiderable
expense of rebuilding the whole chimney, unless it
is so large that a second smaller one may be in-
serted within the old. With the huge fireplaces
of other days, whose yawning mouths were often
capable of holding a ten-foot log, a metal flue is
frequently used in the remodeling. It is sur-
rounded on the outside, between itself and the
old chimney, with concrete, which renders it en-
tirely safe from danger of fire.
A glance should be given also, in this inspection,
at the condition of the floors. If they are not
level, it indicates defects in the timbers under-
neath. The boards themselves are often so rough
and laid with such large cracks that it will be
necessary to lay new floors. Notice, too, the con-
dition of doors and windows; whether they are
straight and true enough to be used again, or if
others will have to replace them. Tap the plaster
here and there to see where it is loose and to what
extent it must be renewed.
These are the tests that indicate whether the
old house is worth buying and what will be the
essential expense to make it habitable. Sometimes
one or another defect is so severe as to make the
venture foolish ; again it can be remedied by
resort to strenuous methods. Not infrequently
the drawbacks of a bad cellar and a poor location
are at once overcome by removing the house alto-
gether to a new site. This is practicable when
THE KITTREDGE HOUSE
the building is sound in structure and an inexpen-
sive operation if it is small.
That was the proceeding which Miss Mabel
L. Kittredge undertook with an old fisherman's
cottage that had stood for many years on the
shores of Cape Cod. It was a simple little build-
ing, dilapidated and weather-beaten, and quite
unsuggestive of a summer home. But its very
quaintness and diminutive size attracted her
attention, and she determined to investigate it.
The owner was willing to part with it, just as it
stood, for eighty-five dollars, not including the
The location was not desirable, and it was de-
cided to "fleck" the house, as is the colloquial
term on the Cape for preparing a building to be
moved. It was taken apart and floated across
the water to its new foundations in South Yar-
mouth. Here it was "unflecked" and set up
facing the harbor and the cool breezes from the
The original building, erected in the early part
of the nineteenth century, was a small, shingled
structure, thirty by twenty feet, with a straight
gable roof rising from the low stud of the first
story. Its proportions were not at all unpleas-
ing, and the placing of the several small-paned
windows was particularly agreeable. There was
a kitchen shed attached to the rear.
When it was set in position in the new location,
additional windows were cut, a small porch
built at the front entrance, and a second shed
attached at right angles to the kitchen wing. In
the second story, a broad flat-roofed dormer with
three windows increased the interior space, with-
out seriously altering the straight lines of the roof.
The effort to retain the original simplicity of line
is also evident in the porch roof, which follows
closely the wide angle of the gable ends of the
The original interior was cut up into a number
of small rooms, the partitions of which were re-
moved, with the exception of those dividing off
a bedroom at the rear. This left one good-sized
apartment, which was fitted up for living and
dining-room combined and made a most delight-
ful place. The stairs were built at the left, along
the rear wall. A group of three windows was cut
here to give extra light and air, and the manner
in which they have been handled is interesting.
On account of the position of a heavy supporting
beam, it was impossible to make these new win-
THE KITTREDGE HOUSE
dows the height of the original ones. The effect
of this was ameliorated by placing a shelf directly
above the group of three and extending it across
the wall to meet the old window. A number of
interesting pieces of china placed on the shelf give
it a character and weight which thus carries the
eye along from one opening to the other without
any consciousness of the break in height. This
is but one of those ingenious methods by which
remodeling is made successful.
The large, old-fashioned fireplace is the center
of interest in this room. At the right of it is a
china closet with mullioned glass door, and on the
left two narrower closets are found in the panel-
ing. A new hardwood floor had to be laid, as the
original one was in bad condition. The wainscot
and woodwork throughout the house was un-
usually good for such a small and unpretentious
structure. After the former layers of paint had
been removed and the wood thoroughly cleaned, it
was finished in white. The walls, scraped down
to the original plaster, were painted in a soft green
flat-coat that was delightfully fresh and cool.
Back of this large room was a small hallway
leading into the ell at the back. At the left, space
was taken for a bathroom.
The kitchen was kept practically the same as
in the old house. The rough stud and rafters were
stained a dark brown, and the boards of the roof
whitewashed. The walls were plastered to the
height of the stud. A modern stove was attached
to the old chimney flue on the outside of the build-
ing. The exposed uprights provided an oppor-
tunity for convenient shelves to be built for the
various kitchen appliances.
Up-stairs the entire floor was thrown into one
room, instead of making several small, stuffy,
sleeping apartments. The dormer which was cut
in the front added not only to the light, air, and
space of the room, but gave an opportunity for
a most attractive window-seat to be built beneath
the broad windows. The old, wide boards of the
floor were in good condition and kept intact.
The walls were plastered to the ridge, exposing
the heavy tie-beams. Along the walls under
the eaves, sets of drawers were built into the wood-
work, thus obviating the necessity of having
chiffoniers or chests of drawers to consume al-
ready limited space. The rough bricks of the
chimney, which breaks slantingly through the
floor near the center of the room, are not con-
cealed. Instead, they form a rather decorative
AN OLD CAPE COD HOUSE THE KITCHEN
The Entrance Porch
THE CURTIS HOUSE
THE KITTREDGE HOUSE
feature in the little apartment, and about the four
sides of the flue shelves are built which serve as
a dressing-table and a desk.
The furnishings of the whole house are delight-
fully simple and suggestive of the quaint Colonial
period when it was built. Tables and chairs,
pictures, mirrors, and china are interesting heir-
looms that have been handed down in the family
of the owner and preserve the spirit of the little
cottage as admirably as do the various alterations
which have made it so modern and habitable.
THE CURTIS HOUSE
THE great charm of Colonial farmhouses lies
in the simplicity of their appearance. Many
dilapidated, weather-beaten old buildings, long
neglected by an indifferent community, are really
little masterpieces of harmonious line and good
The style of the roof tells much about the age
of the building to the initiated, and its line is easily
the most important factor in the appearance of
the house. The pitched roof is one of the oldest
types and was used long before our country was
discovered. This roof slopes away from the ridge-
pole on both sides, thus forming a triangular area,
the angle at each end of which is called a gable.
In the early days, the pitch was built very steep
to accommodate the thatching with which the
roof was covered. As shingles came into use, the
slope gradually flattened, and the age can be
roughly judged by its angle.
The gambrel roof appeared before the eighteenth
THE CURTIS HOUSE
century and was commonly used in New England
farmhouses. Each side of this is made up of two
distinct pitches, which have no rule to govern
their relationship. A somewhat later develop-
ment was the hipped roof, in which the gabled
ends were flattened, making four flat sides slop-
ing from the ridge-pole. This was used when
no attic chamber was needed. In the more pre-
tentious Georgian houses, the top was flattened,
and a wooden balustrade put around it. These
roofs are generally shingled and practically never
painted ; the soft gray color they attain in weather-
ing is sometimes imitated in stain on new shingles.
The addition of a wing or ell brought up a new
problem in roofing, and it is this point that de-
mands most serious attention from the remodeler.
The old builders have not always been successful
in preserving the unity of the roof line that is so-
essential to pleasing design. Whenever ,it is pos-
sible, the new roof should be made a part of the
old, and the lines of one should run into those of
the other. The pitch of the two should be prac-
tically the same. The same type of roof must
be used over all parts of the building, although
it is occasionally permissible to have a pitched
roof on an ell when the main roof is a gambrel.
Where a veranda is added, its roof line must be
carefully studied and made to seem an original
part of the building, not something stuck on as an
afterthought. This problem of keeping the lines
of the different roofs in harmony is a vital one,
and nowhere is there greater demand for ingenuity
and thoughtful treatment.
The question of dormers is also important.
When it is desired to have a second-story porch
or sleeping-room, the dormer often supplies the
solution of this difficult problem. The earliest
ones were merely a flattening of the pitch of the
roof, and this is the type that should be used when
it is necessary to add a dormer to the older farm-
houses. As the Georgian details were developed,
the gable-roofed dormer was used with the cornice
moldings of porches and door frames. These
dormers were high, with a single window often
having a semicircular head. They were usually
combined in groups of three and connected with
each other by a balustrade.
The exterior walls of the first houses were made
of heavy boards laid vertically on the framework,
without studding. Before long, the wood was
laid horizontally, each board overlapping the one
below it. This clapboarding and siding was
THE CURTIS HOUSE
used without interruption through all the various
changes in other details. Much later, the shingle
was adopted for the sides of the house as well as
for the roof. A larger shingle, however, was used
on the walls, with a wide exposure of surface.
These were made of pine or cypress.
Although the walls of most old houses follow
a straight line from one story to the next, there
was a type, copied by the colonists from the
buildings of the mother country and used some-
what freely before the Georgian era, in which the
second story extended beyond the first. This
overhang was generally used only on the front
and back and not on all four sides, as in the Euro-
pean counterparts. The girders and cross beams
were framed into the second-story posts, which
frequently ended in an ornamental knob or drop,
as it was called. The gables, too, occasionally
had a slight overhang. In altering a pre-Georgian
house, it is therefore permissible to make use of
this overhang feature, and it may solve some other-
wise knotty problems of required extra space.
A house which shows unusually clever handling
of these points is situated in the little village of
Charles River, not so many miles outside of Bos-
ton. Within the last few years, this locality has
been opened up, and many modern homes have
been built and farmhouses remodeled. They are
situated along charming woodland roads and
seem to nestle in their picturesque surroundings.
This particular one stands on the road from
Boston to Dover, invitingly shaded by graceful
elms that have watched unnumbered generations
pass. It suggests to passers-by a typical, seven-
teenth century farmhouse, ingeniously remodeled,
through the plans of the late Philip B. Howard
and F. M. Wakefield, architects of Boston, into
a twentieth-century summer home. This old
farmhouse was built in 1647 and was of the rectan-
gular type, built about a central chimney, with
four rooms and a hall on the lower floor. When
Mr. Frederick H. Curtis selected it for his home,
it had already been materially altered from the
original simple structure by various succeeding
tenants. And many of these had not added to
its charms. The exterior was most uninviting
in a vicious shade of red paint with white trim.
In front was a small lattice porch entirely out of
keeping with the architecture of the house. But
in spite of all these unattractive features, there
was an insistent appeal about the old place that
made it seem worth venturing to restore.
THE CURTIS HOUSE
The Hall and Unique Stairway
THE CURTIS HOUSE
THE CURTIS HOUSE
The first problem which presented itself was
that of interior space. The difficulty lay in en-
larging this space in such a way as to provide
the needed room and at the same time maintain the
harmony of the exterior lines. The original four
rooms had been added to from time to time by
former owners by means of the customary ells at
the rear. The house was two and a half stories
high, with a straight, pitched roof starting from
the top of the second story. In the rear there was
a two-story ell and a one-story addition behind
that, with an outside chimney. Each of these
was increased by one room, so that space for
a laundry was added in the lower floor and for
servants' quarters in the second. The chimney
was kept on the outside above the laundry roof
and built up to the required height. This second-
story extension overhangs the old kitchen wall
by about eighteen inches on one side and on the
other runs into an entirely new wing, whose roof
line joins without a break to that of the old ell.
The roof of the main building has been extended
in the rear, following its straight line to the top
of the first story, as was frequently done in old
houses. This brought the lines of the main build-
ing and the rear ells into greater harmony and
provided space for an outdoor living-room on the
first floor. A flat-roofed dormer was thrown out
above this on the second floor and turned into a
sleeping-porch. The lines of the several roofs have
thus been kept remarkably simple, considering the
great amount of space which has been added.
On the opposite side of the house a new wing
has been added to the second floor, parallel to
the main building and at right angles to the ells
in the rear. The front part of it has a pitched
roof following the angle of that on the main build-
ing, and the rear has a flat roof on a very low stud.
This provides three additional rooms on the second
floor. It has been built over an outdoor breakfast
or morning-room on the first floor, and the kitchen
has been widened under it.
At the front of the house, the flat-roofed en-
trance porch was removed, and one more in keep-
ing with the Colonial period built in its place.
This has a gabled roof, supported in front on two
simple columns. The back part of it is closed and
forms a small vestibule, with old-time oval windows
extending on each side beyond the gabled roof-line.
There are two benches in front, also beyond this line
and protected by vine-grown lattices and small, ex-
tending eaves. The floor is paved with brick.
THE CURTIS HOUSE
These comprise the major changes to the ex-
terior ; but new shingles were put on the old roof ;
the dilapidated slat-shutters were replaced by
blinds of solid wood, with a diamond cut in the
upper panel after the old-time fashion; and the
ugly red paint was changed to a soft Colonial buff.
The narrow entrance hall, opening directly on
the stairs, has not been altered. In the stairs,
however, an exceedingly interesting treatment has
been introduced, made necessary by the plan of
the rooms above. On the first landing a doorway
was cut in the chimney wall, and stairs built up
the center of the chimney between the two flues.
These give access to a small hall in the rear, con-
necting the several bedrooms. The door that
leads to these stairs, at the foot, is a "secret"
one; that is, it is covered with the wall-paper
which surrounds it and fits tightly into the wall
without framing woodwork.
At the right of the hallway the parlor and dining-
room were thrown into one long living-room, and
a pleasant triple window was cut in Jthe rear wall
looking out upon the veranda. The fine old wood-
work about the fireplace was restored to its original
beauty with many coats of white paint. The hand-
hewn beams in the ceiling were uncovered from
the casing which had hidden them, and the wood
rubbed and oiled. The floor was found to be in
good condition and, after the placing of additional
boards where the partition was removed, was
merely scraped, filled, stained, and polished. A
semicircular corner cupboard in a reproduction of
an old style, its shelves filled with interesting speci-
mens of seventeenth-century pewter, gives char-
acter to the room. The walls were finished in a
soft shade of burlap, and the old mahogany furni-
ture, chintz covers, rag rugs, and simple scrim
curtains preserve the delightful atmosphere.
On the opposite side of the hall is the library
or den. This is unchanged, except for the white
paint and the quaint Colonial wall-paper. Willow
furniture is used.
Back of this, and extending across to the living-
room, is the dining-room. The beams show the
position of the original walls and indicate the way
in which the room was enlarged. This leaves
the fireplace at the side of a sort of alcove and so,
to balance it and give importance to that end of
the room, a china closet was built across the corner.
An unpaneled wainscot, with simple baseboard
and molding at the top, runs around the room, the
new part matching the old. The woodwork is all
THE CURTIS HOUSE
white, including the encased beams, which here
were not in a condition to be exposed. The upper
walls are covered with a blue and silver grass-cloth
that strikes an effective color note behind the
mahogany furniture. In this room is a good
example of the use of modern reproductions of
Sheraton chairs with a genuine old sideboard.
Glass doors lead from either end of the dining-
room on to the two verandas. Both of these
verandas are really rooms without walls, as they
have been incorporated so completely within the
lines and framework of the house. The one on the
side of the house in front of the kitchen is used as
a breakfast-room, and many of the other meals are
served out here in the open air. That in the rear
of the living-room is a delightful spot on summer
afternoons and evenings. Both of these porches
are thoroughly screened and fitted with framework
in which glass sashes are placed during the winter.
On the second floor there are four bedrooms and
a bath in the main part of the building, with a
sleeping balcony leading from one of them. This
is protected with screens and awnings and fur-
nished with hammocks and reclining chairs. In
the wings there are three servants' rooms and a
bath. All of the rooms have been fitted up in a
quaintly simple style that is thoroughly in keeping
with the period of the house, the low ceilings, and
fine woodwork. In some of the rooms there are
valuable old pieces of furniture, a four-poster of
the Sheraton type, and a highboy with details
of the Queen Anne period. In another room mod-
ern white enamel furniture has been used, but it is
so simple and straightforward in design that it
harmonizes entirely with the atmosphere of the
room engendered by the old fireplace and chimney
cupboard, the thumb latches on the doors, rag rugs,
and an old-time wall-paper figured with stripes of
morning-glories and daintily poised humming-birds.
In this second floor, the old iron hardware has been
largely used in strap and H and L hinges, latches,
knobs, and shutter fastenings.
Throughout the lower story, modern brass
knobs and key plates reproducing an old Colonial
pattern have been used, securing greater conven-
ience and safety.
Hot-air heating has been installed and electric
lighting. The outlets, however, are all in the walls
or baseboard sockets, so that there is no conspicuous
inconsistency in the atmosphere, and lamps and
candles are also used throughout the house.
The Dining Room
THE CURTIS HOUSE
THE architect of to-day has an advantage over
the master builder of long ago in that he is able
to grasp all ideas that were introduced into the
old house and can restore it without losing the
spirit of the original in either the exterior or in-
terior. The wings and ells which were added by
succeeding tenants often bear little relation to
the main building and must either be torn down
or harmonized in some way to preserve the unity
of the completed design. The general plan of the
house and the arrangement of the rooms should
be carefully observed before the house owner and
architect undertake the task of remodeling. Too
many houses are disappointing because a study
has not been made of the different types and periods
of old houses, and the result is a mixture, neither
one thing nor the other.
Old Colonial houses were always built on the
rectangular plan, as this provided the greatest
amount of enclosed space with the least expendi-
ture of labor and material. They were also con-
structed about an axis, and it is essential for the
remodeler to determine what that axis is before
making any alterations.
In the earliest days, the chimney was the center
of the building and dominated the plan. The
various rooms opened around it, so that as many
of them as possible could have a fireplace from
the one chimney. It was consequently a huge
affair and occupied about three fourths as much
space as one of the rooms. In the first plans,
there were usually but two rooms, a kitchen on
one side and a parlor on the other. Later, a
room was built in the back for the kitchen, and
a third opening made in the chimney. The nar-
row stairs were built in at the front to fit into the
chimney space and generally ascended with two
landings and turns at right angles.
As a late - development, about the time of the
Revolution, four equally large rooms were needed,
and this one chimney was divided into two and
placed on either side of the center of the house, so
that in each of the main rooms there was a fire-
place opening front or back from one of the two
chimneys. This arrangement altered the position
of the stairs, and stairs and hall became the central
axis of the house. The proportion of the space
allotted to them, however, remained about the
same as when the chimney had occupied the center.
This accounts for the wide Colonial halls, which
are such a charming feature of old houses. The
stairs were built along one side, the length of the
hall, often a perfectly straight flight without
turn or landing, and the hall was frequently cut
clear through to a door in the back, which formed
a rear exit to the garden. The Georgian houses
at the end of the eighteenth century were com-
monly built on this plan.
There was one other distinct type, in which
the fireplaces in the four corner rooms were in
the outer walls, and four separate chimneys were
built. The central hall and staircase retained
their same dominant proportions, but a second
cross hall was sometimes built, dividing the house
from end to end.
To all of these types, additions were frequently
made, as the family increased, or new owners
took possession. The extra space was not ac-
quired by enlarging the main building but by
adding an ell in the back at right angles to the
original structure, or a wing at the side, parallel
with it. These additions were attached to the
house by their smallest dimension, as that ob-
structed the least amount of light. They were
smaller than the main part ; many were but one
story in height, and those that were two had a
lower stud, so that the original building would
remain the important feature in the whole.
After examining the old house from this point
of view, consider the new uses to which it will be
put and determine what changes will have to
be made. Sketch the entire plan out before com-
mencing an alteration, and then endeavor to see
if the proposed remodeling is practical from a
structural point of view, and if it harmonizes with
the original spirit of the old building. Mark out
in each room the position of windows and decide
where new ones may have to be cut in the re-
arranged interiors. Study the fireplaces and find
out whether the proposed removal of a partition
wall will throw them out of balance in the rooms,
and what you can do to counteract it. Pay partic-
ular attention to closet room, for in the old days
it *was given too little consideration for modern
Draw rough plans and put your ideas regarding
every possibility down on paper; it is surprising
how many new suggestions will occur as each
scheme is worked out, and there is a fascination
in seeing how much can be fitted into a given
space. After the work is begun, unforeseen condi-
tions will crop up and necessitate changes in the
project, as well as disclose new opportunities,
but a greater part of the planning can be done
A roomy, old, New England farmhouse near
Hamilton was recognized by Mr. George Bur-
roughs as a fertile subject for development into
a beautiful country home. It was situated in
the heart of rolling country and surrounded by
wide stretches of grass land, from which the estate
was named "Green Meadows."
The original house, separated from the highway
by an old wall of field stone and an elm-shaded
dooryard, was built in 1786, and it is curious to
note that no deed was ever recorded. It was the
usual type of farmhouse, constructed about a
central chimney, two and a half stories in height,
with an unbroken roof line. Subsequent owners
had added wings at each side instead of the more
customary ell at the rear. One of these wings
is of brick, which indicates that it was probably
not built before the middle of the last century,
but although the two building materials seem
incongruous in the one house, vines have so over-
grown this wing that the red glimpsed through
them and contrasting with the white walls of the
house is very attractive.
The only important alterations in the exterior
appearance of the house were in the addition of
the long veranda across the rear and the altera-
tion of the frame wing at the right. The" old
structure was found to be in too dilapidated a
condition to restore, but it was reproduced in all
its exterior details and joined to the end of a new
wing attached to the house and a trifle broader
than the old. Two hip-roofed dormers add to
the space in the second floor and permit the
construction of attractive servants' quarters.
The frame of the entrance door in the center
of the front facade is a particularly happy example
of the simple Georgian style used in the better
class of farmhouses of that day. Its flat pilasters
and well-proportioned cornice illustrate the re-
straint and refinement in the work of even the
The door itself opens into a small hallway,
restored with fresh white paint to all its original
On this left side of the house the partition be-
tween the old dining-room and parlor has been
removed to make one large living-room. After
the cornices and the wainscoting were restored,
the woodwork, including the encased beams in
the ceiling, was painted white. The condition
of the old floor made it necessary to lay a new
one of hard wood. This room admirably reflects
the old Colonial spirit in its fireplace and cup-
boards. The paneling above the mantel shelf
presents an interesting variation in the framing
of fireplaces. The original wainscot with its
molded cap divides the wall surface in an agree-
able proportion, and the rather heavy cornice
moldings at the ceiling line relieve the emphasis
of the great beams. The old hardware is used
on doors and windows, the thumb latches are
finished in the natural black, and the H and L
hinges painted white to correspond with the wood-
work. The upper part of the walls is covered with
a rose-colored paper reproducing a conventional
Georgian medallion design in silvery gray. This
rose color has been carried out in all the furnish-
ings of this room; the upholstery of chairs and
sofas is in a deeper shade; the over-curtains are
somewhat paler, and in the Oriental rugs, rose
blends with soft browns and blues. Old-fashioned
Venetian blinds or slat-curtains shade the win-
dows in the living-room and throughout the house.
On the opposite side of the entrance hall is the
reception-room. The same treatment has been ac-
corded here as in the living-room, and the furnish-
ings are especially harmonious and well arranged.
The long, low lines of an Adam sofa, a slender-
legged desk, and chairs and table, each one a
noteworthy masterpiece of cabinet making, are
admirably chosen to add apparent height to the
low stud, but the monotony of too much light and
low furniture is broken by a tall grandfather
clock placed in the corner. The pictures on the
walls, old prints simply framed in mahogany,
are hung with a similar thought to increase the
apparent height of the room, and their arrange-
ment is well worth studying. The fireplace, on
the opposite side of the chimney from that in the
living-room, is equally interesting. The wall above
the white wainscot is papered in a golden yellow
of conventional flowers, and the upholstery and
draperies are of a golden striped and figured Adam
damask that brings out the rich color of the
satinwood and mahogany furniture.
In the rear, on the same side of the house, is
the dining-room. The old woodwork here was
Two Views of the Den
The Old-fashioned Chamber
The Living Room
insignificant, and it has been replaced with modern
paneled wainscot covering two thirds of the wall
surface. One could wish that the proportions
of the original woodwork had been a little more
closely followed, and the atmosphere of the other
rooms carried more definitely into this. The
old fireplace has been retained across the corner
of the room with its flue in the central chimney,
but its frame is a modern conception. The
chimney cupboard in the side has been turned
into a china closet with a new door of mullioned
glass displaying interesting old pewter and plates.
The upper third of the wall above the wainscot
is covered with a reproduction of an old-time
scenic paper in greens and grays, and the window
hangings are of corresponding colors in damask.
The seats of the Hepplewhite chairs carry the
same tones in tapestry. The apparent size of
the dining-room has been cleverly increased by
carrying the decorative motives into the passage-
way which connects it with the service quarters
in the right wing. The same paneling of the
wainscot and the same paper above, seen through
the double doorway, give the impression that this is
all part of the one room, and the placing of a buffet
in front of the opening enhances the effect.
On the other side of the dining-room a small
hall, paneled with white enameled woodwork to
the ceiling, leads into the living-room.
French doors of glass open from here on to the
wide veranda which has been added across the
back of the house, overlooking the green meadows
and shady vales that stretch away on all sides.
From this veranda or from the living-room, one
can enter the brick wing at the left of the house.
This originally contained the kitchen with bed-
rooms above, but in altering it, the entire wing
was thrown into one room opened to the roof.
With the great old beams and rafters showing,
and all the woodwork stained dark, this apart-
ment lends itself admirably to the character of
a den or smoking-room. At the end, the old
kitchen chimney has been utilized for a fireplace,
and old paneling inserted above the high mantel.
Seats have been built under the windows flanking
the chimney and, with their soft cushions and
pillows, add materially to the comfort of the room.
The windows in this wing are unusually large,
an indication of the later date of its construction,
and in order to carry the same proportions in
their divisions as in the older part of the house,
twenty-four panes of glass were used in each.
A rich green and brown landscape paper covers
the upper two thirds of the walls above the wainscot
molding. The upholstery and cushions on daven-
port, armchairs, and window-seats of brown leather
stamp this apartment indelibly as a man's room,
and the decorations of old flint-locks in one corner
add to the effect.
The service quarters of the house in the wings
at the right have been made especially complete.
In the middle section are butler's pantry, kitchen,
laundry, and refrigerator, with two bedrooms on
the second floor; and in the narrower part is a
servants' hall and three bedrooms which are open
to the roof.
On the upper floor of the main part of the house
the four bedrooms have been kept much as in the
past. Those in the rear have been made to open
out, through double doors, on to the second story
of the veranda, which can be used as a sleeping-
porch. The old white woodwork and the original
fireplaces add their ineffable charm. The floors
were in poor condition and are covered with mat-
ting as a background for the rag rugs. Some very
interesting old pieces of furniture add to the atmos-
phere of these chambers.
The registers of the hot-air heating system which
has been installed are unusually well selected for
an old Colonial house. Instead of the customary
meaningless scroll and meander pattern in the
grills, a simple square lattice has been used, which
preserves the spirit of other days admirably.
CITY people are prone to think that the country
is agreeable only during the summer months,
and that winters spent there are unpleasant and
dreary. This notion is fast being dispelled, as
country houses are kept open longer and longer
each year, and the pleasures of country week-ends
during the entire winter are definitely proven.
There is in reality no more delightful place to
spend the long winter months than in the heart
of a beautiful country. A never-ending round of
interests astonishes one who has never tried it
before. Each month brings a fresh phase, and
it is hard to determine whether the country is
at its best during the summer or winter season.
There is a fascination indescribable in watching
the fall of snow, the settling of flakes on the bare
limbs, the transition from brown to diamond-
covered branches that glisten with every motion
and are often decorated with long icicles reflecting
all the prismatic colors. If you have never seen
this side of country life, you will find it a won-
derful world, where it is intensely interesting to
study the seasons in turn, note the coming and
going of birds, look for the early and late flowers,
watch the melting of snows and the swelling of
buds in the warm spring suns.
More active pleasures, too, await the adventurer
in the winter country. There are so many sports
to be enjoyed that one does not wonder the youth
delights to come here for skating, snow-shoeing,
or toboganning. What is more delightful than a
sleighing party, whose destination is a remodeled
farmhouse not too many miles from the city ?
Start the cheery fire in the huge fireplace, pile
on the six-foot logs, draw your chairs nearer while
you forget the outside world, and feel a glow of
delight that you, too, have joined the throng who
know the thrill of country life.
The first thing to do when contemplating an
all-the-year-round country home is to look for a
house in the right location. In selecting it the
problem of heating must be thought of in a differ-
ent way than as that for merely summer use.
Then fireplaces will amply suffice for the few cool
days and chilly evenings, and no better method
could be desired. But for the real cold of winter,
whether for continued use or the occasional week-
end, more complete heating will need to be pro-
The cheapest and simplest way is undoubtedly
by stoves which can be attached to the fireplace
flues. But this necessitates closing up the fire-
place and depriving family and guests of all the
joys of the blazing logs which never seem more
cheerful and hospitable than in the bitterest
weather. If the house is to be used mainly for
week-end parties, stoves have another serious
drawback. They must be kept oiled when not
in use, to prevent their rusting, and it takes nearly
two days after the fire is lighted to burn the oil
off. Then, when closing up the house again, the
stove must be re-oiled, and this necessitates putting
the fire out and waiting in the cold house until
the metal is sufficiently cool to apply the treat-
The most adequate method is by hot water or
steam, and for a large country house these are
really the only practical ways. The expense
involved will depend upon the structure of the
house. In a brick or stone building, it will cost
a good deal to have the pipes built into the wall.
Sometimes conditions will allow them to be carried
up in a closet or partition. In a frame house
that has been built with deep window jambs, as
was so often done in the olden times, the pipes
can be hidden within this furred framework.
The great objection to steam or hot-water systems
in old houses, however, is the presence of the
radiator, which never can be made to harmonize
thoroughly with the spirit of the old building.
When it is used, some attempt must be made to
disguise it. If it can be made long and low and
placed in front of a window, it can be treated as
a window-seat with a metal grill in front. For
houses of the later Georgian period, grills can be
found whose designs are not at all out of keeping
with the other classical details. Sometimes a
radiator can be placed entirely within the furred
partition, and the heat admitted into the room
through paneled doors which are thrown open
when it is in use.
For small houses, the hot-air system is perhaps
the most desirable. The registers are inconspicu-
ous and bring no jarring note into the old-time
atmosphere. The pipes require considerable over-
head room in the cellar, which sometimes becomes
a hard problem in the low foundations of old
houses. The fact that it is difficult to drive the
The Living Room
hot air against the wind raises a second objection,
but if the furnace is placed in the corner of the
house from which the cold winds blow, or even a
second furnace is installed, the trouble will be
largely overcome. And there is the great advan-
tage, especially for a week-end house, that it can
be started up or left at a moment's notice with-
out trouble from water in the pipes or danger of
freezing as in the hot-water systems.
Whatever the method decided upon, it is an
interesting work from start to finish. One feels
a thrill of adventure in evoking from the home
of past generations one for twentieth-century
living with all the comforts and appliances neces-
sary. But to transform an old building that has
never even been intended for living purposes into
a residence that is not only comfortable and
suited to the owner's needs but an architectural
success as well, is a still more fascinating problem.
How Messrs. Killam and Hopkins have accom-
plished this with an old barn at Dover and kept
the distinctive simplicity and atmosphere of the
original building is worthy of emulation.
When Mrs. Genevieve Fuller bought the Nawn
Farm some three years ago, it was her intention
to alter the farmhouse then on the property.
Its location, however, was not entirely favorable;
the house was on sloping ground in somewhat of
a hollow and too near the public road. Besides
this, the rooms were small and very much out of
repair. On the crest of the hill was the barn,
occupying a commanding position and framed
in splendid old trees. The structure was found
to be so stanch that it was decided to tear down
the old house and convert the barn into the resi-
The foundations were left unchanged, and an
ell on the north side was added for the service
portion of the building. The supports and interior
divisions are all virtually unaltered. The living
and dining rooms occupy the positions of the
former mows, and the hall connecting them is the
old passage for the wagons. Most of the original
studding has been used as it stood, and the beams
incased or hidden in the finish of the walls. The
roof was flattened on the top, and the gables cut
off, but the slope was unaltered. Wider eaves
were added at a slightly different pitch, softening
the lines of the roof.
Doors and windows were, of course, cut anew
to conform with the different usage of the build-
ing. Their position was necessarily determined
somewhat by the existing supports, but they have
been very happily placed, whether in groups or
singly. Those of the sleeping rooms on the second
floor are especially well handled; they are wide
and raised well up under the overhanging roof, so
that they carry out the broad low lines of the
architecture. The openings of the sleeping-porches
have been treated exactly as windows, their
size corresponding with the apparent dimensions
of the windows, and their locations determined
by the same factors. They become at once an
integral part of the structure instead of the un-
sightly excrescence which the presence of a sleep-
ing-porch so often proves.
On the first floor, the living-room occupies
the entire eastern end, having exposures on three
sides. This has been attractively finished in
gum wood stained a dark brown, and the warm
tones of natural colored grass-cloth tone the walls.
An interesting treatment has been accorded the
fireplace by flanking it on either side with a nook,
the outer walls of which cleverly conceal parts
of the old structure. In each of the recesses is a
small window above the paneling and window-seat.
The furnishings of the room are appropriately
simple and invitingly comfortable, suggesting old-
fashioned things adapted for modern uses. Espe-
cial interest is attached to the fireplace fittings;
they are of hand-forged iron, wrought by the
village blacksmith after designs of the owner.
The andirons were made from the tires of old cart
wheels, flattened and bent into shape and curled
over at the top. The wood-box is of flat strips
of iron interlaced.
From one wing of the hall ascend stairs which
are the faithful reproduction of an old Colonial
design. The other part of the hall, across the
southern front, is so broad and cheerful with two
big windows and two glass doors opening on to
the sunny loggia that it has been furnished with a
davenport, tables, and chairs almost as a second
living-room. The woodwork is North Carolina
pine stained brown, and the walls are gray.
The billiard-room back of this, hall, with its
attractive alcove and fireplace, is finished in
fumed oak, and the walls are also gray.
Perhaps the distinction of being the most attrac-
tive room in the house can be accorded the din-
ing-room with its Colonial white woodwork. The
fireplace and the china closet, balanced on the
other side by the door into the pantry, are of excel-
lent proportions and charming detail. The mul-
Two Views of the Dining Room
The China Closet in the Dining Room
lioned panes of the china closet and the treatment
of the moldings about the frame are especially
interesting. On the opposite side of the room a
group of three windows provides opportunity
for an unusually delightful feature in the long
window-box, built by the village carpenter. Its
simple, sturdy lines are worthy of notice. The
walls are papered in a deep cream, and the greatest
simplicity maintained in the furniture and dra-
The service portion is well arranged both for
convenience of labor and comfort of the domestics.
The basement laundry leads directly into a large
drying yard which was the original enclosure for
the cows and is surrounded by the same wall of
Up-stairs the rooms might be said to be divided
into three suites, which can be practically shut
off from each other: each has its own bath and
sleeping-porch. In the group over the living-
room there has been an ingenious solution of the
structural conditions. The division of the rooms
made possible by the old supports permitted a
dressing-room to be placed conveniently between
the two chambers, but the fireplace added in
the living-room was directly below, so that the
chimney would naturally cut off the outside wall.
It would have been possible to construct a large
fireplace in the dressing-room and allow the light
to come through the chambers, but the archi-
tects evolved another scheme. The chimney was
carried up on one side, providing a fireplace for
one of the chambers, and a second chimney was
built in the opposite corner of the dressing-room.
In the space between, a window was cut, and the
two flues joined directly over the window. From
the outside of the building this gives a most
unusual effect as there is a chimney directly over
a window, having no apparent support, or even
purpose. The lines of the pyramidal base con-
form to the slope of the roof.
THE remodeling of an old farmhouse is appar-
ently a simple matter; it would at first seem
necessary only to preserve the main lines and
characteristics of the original in the alterations
that are required to meet the conditions of modern
life. But when one realizes that the less conspicu-
ous details are also important, in order to main-
tain the essential harmony of the whole, it be-
comes a more intricate proposition. One cannot
merely study the details already on the building
and slavishly copy them for the new parts, be-
cause frequently it will be found that doors or
windows or shutters have been added by more
recent owners and are not really in keeping with
the old structure at all. In order to reclaim the
house, then, so that it shall have a consistent unity
throughout, one must have some understanding
of the evolution of these details.
There is no more significant element in these
old Colonial houses than the front door. It was
placed in the center of the front wall and formed
the unit of the exterior design. The very early
doors were of heavy oak boards placed vertically
and fastened together with horizontal strips.
These batten doors, as they were called, were
made very sturdy and- strong, in order to resist
attacks from Indians or other marauders. Often
they were marked with an awl into diamond and
lozenge patterns and sometimes studded with
hand-wrought nails. Not for a good many years
did the panel door come into use. At first it
was a flat panel, flush with the sides of the door
and separated from the sides and top only by a
small bead molding. This was soon developed
into the flat sunken panel, meeting the surround-
ing wood with several moldings ; and then the
panels were beveled and raised in the center, and
the moldings gradually became more elaborate
and delicate in outline. The early doors were
solid for purposes of protection, but as the coun-
try became more settled, thick bull's-eye glass
was inserted into the top horizontal panel to let
light into the hall. As the interior plan was
changed in its evolution, the hall became larger,
and these bull's-eyes did not provide sufficient
light, so the transom was introduced over the
door. For some time a simple top light was
used, divided by lead and then wooden muntins.
Then side lights were introduced, and the treat-
ment became more elaborate in the beautiful
styles of the later Georgian period.
The frame about the door was at first of flat,
undecorated boards, the upper one resting on the
two at the sides. Then these were molded and
mitered at the corners, and later a cap of heavier
moldings was put across the top. This hood
became more and more prominent and required
the use of definite support. Console brackets
were sometimes used but more frequently flat
pilasters set against the wall. These gradually be-
came more important, developing into the three-
quarter round and finally the isolated column.
The pediment and cornice were then extended
into the open porch that is one of the splendid
features of the Georgian style. Here in cornice
and capital was a field for the development of all
the most delicate and beautiful motives of classic
As this door and porch was the center of the
design of the exterior, the windows were grouped
symmetrically about it, the same on each side.
There were few of them at first, and they were
of rather small size. Casement windows were
the earliest kind used, and the small, diamond
panes were sunk in lead, as were those made in
the mother country. It is probable that most of
these windows were brought over from England
and not constructed here. After 1700, the sliding
sash was introduced, dividing the windows hori-
zontally, and these had wooden muntins. It must
have been considered a more elegant type of
window, for it was used in the front of the house
for a long time, while the leaded casement was still
put in rear windows for many years. The early
wooden muntins were quite heavy but later became
nearly as delicate as the leaden ones. They divided
the sash horizontally and vertically into squares.
The window casings, like the door frames, were
at first entirely plain and then had a heavier
band across the top which developed into a molded
cap or cornice, as at the entrance. When sliding
sashes were introduced, the walls of the houses
were not thick enough to contain them, so the
frames and the sashes were built on to the out-
side, frequently projecting quite a distance. The
necessity for constructing them in this way led
to the deep jambs and sills which are such a
charming characteristic of the Colonial style.
The Front Doorway
Shutters were used on the outside of the house
as a means of protection from the Indians, when
the country was being settled, and these were
made of heavy, battened wood three or four inches
thick, like the doors. Subsequently a small dia-
mond was cut in the top to admit some light when
the shutter was closed. Then a shutter with a
solid upper and lower panel was used, and finally
these panels were replaced with slats.
There was one other part of the exterior which
developed interesting characteristics to be ob-
served in the remodeling : that is, the cornice of
the roof. This was merely the overhang in the
early buildings and sometimes consisted of the
framing beam actually exposed. In the Georgian
houses, this was boxed and later elaborated with
splendid carvings that deserve perpetuation in
more lasting material than wood. There was no
gutter for rain-water, and the drip from the eaves
was caught on flagstones on the ground at the
corners of the house. This detail, although not
needed with modern gutters and rain pipes, gives
a charming old-time touch when retained in the
It is by attention to such seemingly insignifi-
cant points that the atmosphere of the original
buildings has been consistently retained in so many
cases. An excellent instance of how this has
been done may be seen in a late Georgian type of
farmhouse that stands somewhat back from the
old Londonderry turnpike on an estate at Hopkin-
ton, New Hampshire. Although it is not very
old, having been built in 1820, it is typical of the
better class of simple home in the early days of
The history of the building of this old house is
rather interesting. In the days when lotteries
were still in flourishing condition, and some of
the best men in the community were interesting
themselves in the various schemes, a member of
one of the churches induced Deacon Philip Brown's
hired man to purchase a ticket for a paltry sum.
Repenting his investment, he afterwards sold
it to his employer, who was a clever silversmith
and clock-maker, much respected and well known
in the community through his yearly rounds
about Hopkinton to repair the clocks of the
farmers. The ticket proved to be the winning
one, that drew a great prize. With part of this
money, Deacon Brown purchased the old "Boulder
Farm," as it was called from a great rock that
still stands in an open field just south of the house.
Here he erected the Georgian farmhouse that is
standing to-day. The rest of the money, so the
legend runs, he buried somewhere in the field, but
he probably removed it later, as it has never been
He placed the house on rising land, a short
distance from the broad highway, built in the same
year and for a long time the straight thoroughfare
from Londonderry to Concord and Boston. Dea-
con Brown lived on the estate until 1846, with
the exception of the year 1830, when it was occu-
pied by Governor Matthew Harvey of New
Hampshire. The property, placed on the market,
then fell into the hands of a man named Kelly,
brother-in-law to Grace Fletcher, the first wife
of Daniel Webster. During his life, the great
American statesman often visited there. What
happened during the period between this occu-
pancy and the time of its purchase by Mr. Harry
Dudley of Concord, New Hampshire, is not
recorded, but we can be confident that the house
had careful treatment from its state of preserva-
It was while Mr. Dudley was looking around
for a home with ample grounds, and near enough
to his business to allow him to go back and forth
every day, that he discovered this historic place.
Its attractiveness and the healthfulness of the
surroundings appealed to him. Very little was
needed to bring the house back to good condition
and make it habitable. The land was attractive
and could be improved. In front of the house
was a wide stretch of meadow that was easily
terraced to meet the boundary line. To the many
old trees shading the house and lawn were added
young trees to replace some of the ancient ones
that were dying.
Although the house was a model type of the
architecture of its day, and there had been abun-
dant room for the old-time residents, modern
ways of living demanded additional space. A
long ell, built at the rear for the service depart-
ment, and a wide veranda in dignified Colonial
style along one side were the two main exterior
alterations. The appearance of the windows was
changed by putting in larger panes in order to
admit more light, but they were still in keeping
with the old-time atmosphere. The reshingling
and repainting of the house and the addition of
the trellises at one side completed the exterior
improvements. The splendid front entrance
porch with its graceful fanlight, Doric columns,
and straight cornice, and the equally interesting
though less imposing side porch were left prac-
tically unchanged. The old blinds were restored,
to give the stately, old-time atmosphere to the
The new veranda is wide and extends along the
whole side of the house. Its flat roof rests on
coupled Doric columns that carry out the classi-
cal Georgian detail of the entrance porch ; the
second story is finished with a simple balustrade,
in keeping with the fine simplicity of the main
lines. During the summer months this broad
piazza is a delightful out-of-door living-room,
from which there is a splendid view over the green
country ; and one can, in imagination, picture the
old stage-coaches of former days lumbering by on
the highroad. The upper part of the veranda
opening from the chambers on that side of the
house is used as a sleeping-porch.
The path that leads to the main entrance
passes through a wicket gate and ascends the ter-
race over stone steps to the granite block before
the door. The pleasant formality of this porch
is accentuated by two close-clipped bay trees,
one on either side of the step.
This door opens directly into the hall and faces
the long, straight flight of stairs which reaches
the second floor without a turn. The woodwork
of these stairs is particularly nice in proportion
and line; and the carving under the ends of the
steps, in a simple but beautiful scroll design, is
most interesting. The hand-rail is mahogany,
and the molding which follows it on the wall side
above the wainscoting is also mahogany.
In the parlor at the left no innovation has been
introduced, and it remains almost as when the
house was built. There we find the old white
wainscoting unpaneled, with a fine 'carved mold-
ing defining the top. The windows, recessed in
the Colonial style, retain their original inside
shutters that are still used. It is unusual to find
these to-day, for in remodeling houses the shutters
are almost always removed in favor of more mod-
ern conveniences. Shutters were formerly used
as we now employ curtains, to be closed at night-
fall or to shut out light and cold. The fireplace
in this room is a fine example of Colonial work.
It shows a central medallion of a plentifully filled
fruit basket and wheat sheaves over the fluted
side columns ; the edge of the mantel shelf has an
unusual ball and string ornamentation finely
carved. The wall-paper dates back to the time
of the fireplace. It shows a Grecian pastoral de-
sign in shades of brown, yellow, and old rose and
was hand-printed from blocks made in England.
Through all these years it has retained its bright-
ness, escaping the hands of time, and lends a
charming and quaint atmosphere to this room.
All of the movable furnishings are equally well in
keeping; the slat-back chairs and tables con-
form to the spirit of the period, as does the fine
old Empire mirror, resting on its rosettes.
On the opposite side of the hall from the parlor
is the living-room. This is similar in character,
with a fireplace only slightly less interesting.
It has the same old white wainscoting, but the
upper walls have been covered with a modern
foliage paper which, strangely enough, blends
harmoniously with the setting of the room. It
is furnished with eighteenth-century pieces corre-
sponding to those in the other parts of the house.
At the end of the hall is the dining-room, reached
through an open arch. The old wall and door
here were cut away in the remodeling to produce
an impression of spaciousness and give a vista
from the entrance clear through the house and
into the garden at the rear. The arch was added
to finish the opening, but it conforms carefully
to the details found in the architecture of that
day. This room was originally divided, and one
part used as a kitchen, but the partition was re-
moved and the two thrown into one, making a long
dining-room which occupies the greater part of
the rear of the house. At the end, the old single
window was enlarged, and two smaller ones cut
through on either side to make a delightful sunny
group which adds materially to the charm of the
room. In the fireplace, which was the original
old kitchen one, used for cooking and baking,
the brick oven was removed to admit the intro-
duction of a door opening into the living-room.
Otherwise it was left unchanged, and the white
painted woodwork about it, although simple and
unpretentious, is beautifully proportioned. The
old flint-lock and warming-pan which hang there
pleasantly emphasize the Colonial idea. The
wall-paper is a reproduction of a Colonial block
pattern in soft shades of gray and green. The
floors in this room, as all over the house, are
covered with matting laid over the original boards,
which were found to be in too bad a condition to
restore ; entirely new ones would have been neces-
sitated had bare, polished floors been demanded.
At the end of the dining-room, opposite the
triple window, a door leads into a small room
which is used as a den. This retains the old
fireplace opening from the same chimney and
directly back of that in the parlor. The walls
have been papered in a plain green and are spar-
ingly decorated with sporting prints and trophies
suggestive of the hunt and the master's particu-
lar domain. Doors lead from this room not only
into the dining-room, but to the parlor and the
veranda at the side.
The ell of the house, opening from the dining-
room, is devoted to butler's pantry, kitchen,
servants' dining-room, and servants' chambers on
the second floor.
The upper story of the main part of the house
has been kept almost as when it was built, and the
large square chambers are well-lighted and airy.
The open fireplaces and the Colonial furniture,
four-posters and highboys and chests, give to the
rooms a delightfully old-fashioned atmosphere.
The whole house is a fine example of late Geor-
gian architecture, preserved in all its interesting
FEW people realize how much thought should
be put into the remodeling of a farmhouse, and
many fail to keep the simple country atmos-
phere; they endeavor to establish in suburban
surroundings a home that is better suited to city
life. A house reclaimed in this way is neces-
sarily a misfit and must always seem inharmonious
in its setting. It never carries out the idea for
which we are striving : that a house should be
typical of the life of the people who live in it.
It should express individuality, be a house to live
in, to grow in, to become identified with your
life; this is a most important fact that cannot
be too carefully observed, and it becomes all the
more essential if the home is to be an all-the-year-
round one and not merely a summer residence
where but a few months are passed.
To-day it is a far more difficult matter to se-
lect an old farmhouse of sufficient distinction to
remodel than it was even ten years ago. The
Two Views of the Dining Room
THREE ACRES, FROM THE MAIN ROAD
most desirable ones have already been bought,
since the pleasures of living in the country have
been realized by so many former dwellers in the
city. There are many personal matters to be
thought of in the selection of a house for remodel-
ing ; one must consider his individual needs in its
relation to his daily pursuits. The business man
must select a house near enough to the city to
allow traveling back and forth every day ; but the
man whose occupation does not require city life
during the time he wishes to be in the country can
establish himself wherever he chooses. There is
ao doubt that the latter is able to find a far better
farmhouse, for he can go farther away, where the
best types have not been reclaimed, owing to their
distances from the large cities.
It is to be taken for granted that a person has
a definite purpose when he leaves the city for a
country existence, and it is necessary that he
educate himself to the point where he makes his
ideas practical. This cannot be done without
study beforehand. In making a house suit indi-
vidual requirements, one must follow along its
own lines. Do not attempt to transplant into it
features from some other house you admire. An
Elizabethan gable or a craftsman living-room
may have been very interesting in the friends'
houses in which you saw them, but they would
be quite out of place thrust into a Colonial farm-
house. If you have a real need for the features
that you find in some other house, you should
adapt them to the spirit of the building you are
If it cannot be made to harmonize with the
other motives, it is possible that you are attempt-
ing to make a home out of a building that is not
suited to your style of life. But it is because
these Colonial farmhouses meet the requirements
of the average American families so adequately
that they are so interesting to remodel. Each
house owner must decide for himself what is the
main element in his existence and reclaim the
house accordingly. In one family, the interests
will be entirely domestic; another household
will live in the open, occupied with sports; an-
other devotes much time to music ; and there are
still others who are absorbed in some special craft
or work that will require definite accommoda-
tions. In many cases the house can readily be
adapted to these particular requirements with-
out any essential change in its atmosphere. The
success that is achieved by working with these
old-time elements is due to their sincerity and
honesty in solving the problems of their own day
and age; they are the results of actual and real
experience, and we know no better ways to meet
the same conditions. So that when we have the
same problems confronting us, we cannot do better
than accept the successful results of others' experi-
This does not mean a v slavish copying of the old
in restoration; to simply imitate old elements
would be neither interesting nor commendable,
except for the purposes of a museum. Each
style is based upon some fundamental principle,
and it should be our aim to work with the under-
lying idea of creating that which will best meet
our special needs, not merely to reproduce the
old in imitation of itself.
Nature lends itself to the remodeling and
suggests many ideas that help to identify the
house with the personality of its owner. Every-
thing attempted in the way of improvements
can be broad and expansive and not congested,
as would be necessary in the city. You should
in every particular make the house grow to fit
the surroundings and do it in such a way that it
will seem to have been so always. Often the
house has to be moved on its foundations to meet
this need, but that is not a difficult matter to
accomplish, if the timbers are stanch and the
If the owner's ideas are carried out, the house
in its finished condition will be but an expression
of his taste and understanding. In it we will
be able to read his likes and dislikes. Unity
should be the keynote of it all and should per-
meate not only the house itself in all its details,
but its gardens, lawns, stables, and every aspect of
There is a house that has been given rare indi-
viduality in this way at Duxbury, Massachusetts.
As one drives along the picturesque country road,
he comes to a winding lane that leads by graceful
turns to a little brown farmhouse situated on the
crest of a hill about three hundred yards from the
main road. If the farmhouse alone is attractive,
how much more so is it made by the entrance, for
on either side are graceful elms that form an arch-
way, disclosing the house beyond like a picture
set in a rustic frame. On either side of the road-
way one finds meadow lands and flower and vege-
table gardens, everywhere dotted with graceful
trees and the picturesque sumach. Vines clamber
over the stone walls, partly hiding their rough-
ness and giving their homelike atmosphere to the
grounds. There are just three acres in this little
property, bounded on two sides by delightful
woodlands and on the others by rolling farmland
and pastures ; but there is room in even these
small confines for a garden to supply the table
all the year round and a bit of orchard where the
gnarled old apple-trees are still fruitful.
Originally the old farmhouse was in a most
unprepossessing condition. It had been inhabited
for many years by farmer folk who took little
pains with its appearance either without or within.
When Mrs. Josephine Hartwell Shaw, of Boston,
was searching for a country seat where she could
pursue her occupation away from the bustle of
city life and unmolested by chance guests, she was
attracted first of all to the quiet little town by the
name of Duxbury. As she looked about for a
suitable house, she was charmed with the location
of this weather-beaten old building, and closer
examination proved it well worth reclaiming, both
from an artist's point of view and from that of
her own individual requirements.
Like many of the farmhouses in eastern Massa-
chusetts, it had that peculiar beauty which
f f I
consisted largely in its simple and straightforward
solution of the problems at hand. It was not the
creation of a master architect but of ordinary
builders and craftsmen following the traditions of
their fathers, varied by the restrictions of local
material and newer requirements. It is this
rugged and sturdy simplicity that gives to it an
enduring charm; it was the very lack of a set
style that gave to the remodeling of it an unfail-
ing zest, increased by the very difficulty of the
experiment that might result in a woeful failure
or a great success. In dealing with houses such
as this, it is impossible for the architect to rely on
any formula or book of rules to direct him in a
correct restoration. It requires a much deeper
study and an understanding of the problems that
confronted the builder in erecting the structure
and the conditions under which he worked. It is
then that the spirit of the old house will be mani-
fest, and its adaptation to modern requirements
will be but the thought of former years revised
to meet present needs.
There are few buildings that can claim a more
sympathetic handling in their restoration than
this early, pre-Georgian farmhouse, which is
called Three Acres. The excellent line of the
wide, gabled roof, broken by a succession of out-
buildings, forms an unusually attractive picture,
with the weather-stained shingles softened against
a background of oak and pine trees. The house
now faces away from the main road and fronts
upon a wooded slope that falls sharply down to
the shores of a picturesque little pond. This is
partly hidden by dense woods that form a back-
ground and a windbreak for the house. Formerly
the public road went along here within a few yards
of the front of the house, but it has been aban-
doned for the broader highway in the rear, and
only the vaguest traces of it remain to-day.
The building was a two-story, shingled struc-
ture with an uncompromising squareness about it.
The wide, gable roof sloped down to the stud of
the first floor, giving but little room in the cham-
bers above. It was of the central chimney type.
In the rear, a small, gable-roofed ell had been
added, and later still a flat-roofed shed at right
angles to the ell, or parallel to the main house,
was built. In still a third addition, a well was
incorporated in the rear, under a continuation of
the roof of the shed, and another small outhouse
in an extension to the side. This seeming con-
glomeration of roofs in reality made a rather in-
teresting and graceful play of line that lifted the
little house from commonplaceness.
It was found to be in such good condition on
the exterior that little repairing was needed, but
several alterations were made, adding both to the
character of the building and the comfort of the
occupants. The original front door opened very
abruptly upon the stairs, leaving only enough
hall space to open the door. This was remedied
by the addition of a small, flat-roofed bay at the
front, increasing the space in the hall by just that
much. The old door with its bull's-eyes was
used in the new position. The step before it
was protected under the same roof, supported on
two, small, square posts and a trellis at the sides,
giving somewhat the effect of an old-time Colonial
porch and serving not only the material purpose
of adding room to the interior but of relieving the
abrupt and uninteresting severity of the front
lines. In the second story, unusually successful
dormers were cut in both the back and front pitch
of the roof. The plan of these dormers deserves
especial study, as each group is in reality com-
posed of three separate dormers, enlarging three
rooms in the interior, but confined under the one
flat roof. Note, too, how each end of the dormer
extends beyond the middle portion, and how the
shape of the windows accents the design. '$
A new entrance was cut at the side toward the
lane, and a screened veranda added, with a flat
roof corresponding to that at the front. Several
new windows were made necessary by the rear-
rangements in the interior, but they were placed
with careful regard to the exterior proportion
and balance. The glass used in the old windows
when the house was bought was all the full size of
the sashes, doubtless having been put there by some
recent owner and seeming quite out of harmony with
the details of the house ; consequently they were re-
placed with small panes, twenty-four to a window,
and the new windows were all of the casement type.
The interior of the house with its ugly paint
and paper, presented a rather hopeless appearance,
that only a vivid imagination and an unwavering
enthusiasm could have transformed into the at-
tractive home that it is to-day. Beginning at
the front, the cramped little hall was enlarged as
has already been explained. This made a trifle
more stair room, and the first seven steps reach-
ing to the little landing were rebuilt with lower
risers and broader treads that made ascent to the
second floor a less arduous matter.
On the left of the hall was the living-room, on
the right a bedroom, and in the rear of the house
the room originally designed for the kitchen;
in each of these was a fireplace opening out of the
one central chimney.
The first step in the restoration consisted of
tearing off the many layers of hideous wall-paper,
removing the plaster where it was crumbling, and
scraping the woodwork free from its dingy paint.
In these operations a number of unexpected dis-
coveries were made concerning the fine old panel-
ing and great, hand-hewn beams that had been
entirely covered up.
The only change made in the plan of this floor
was in the corner beyond the living-room and at
the end of the kitchen. This was originally
divided into a tiny chamber opening from the
living-room, and a pantry off the kitchen. These
were thrown into one, and the openings to living-
room and kitchen enlarged. The former bed-
room window was changed to a door leading on
to the screened veranda, and an attractive group
of three casement windows replaced the one in
the rear wall, overlooking the charming vista of
winding lane and old apple-trees and meadows
beyond. This little apartment has been treated
A Corner of the Living Room
The Living Room
The Dining Room
as a sort of anteroom or really a wing of the
living-room, and wall finish, paint, and furnish-
ings all harmonize.
In the living-room the fireplace holds the center
of attention. It is faced with queer old Spanish
tiles inserted at intervals in plain cement, the rich
colorings of which give a quaintly exotic air to
the fine white woodwork. The moldings about
the frame and over the mantel are unusually fine
for this type of house; the support of the heavy
mantel shelf and the carved dentils in the ceiling
cornice are especially interesting. At the right
of the fireplace is a cupboard with an upper and
lower door, in the old-time fashion; the upper
one has small, square, mullioned panes of glass
which disclose some attractive pieces of old china
In the kitchen, which was turned into the dining-
room, the old fireplace had been bricked up to
receive a stovepipe, and the woodwork had been
plastered over and papered. The fireplace was
opened up to its original size, large enough to
accommodate a six-foot log, and in refacing it, the
old, blackened, fire-burned bricks were used with
delightful effect. The paneling about it is very
simple, but the proportions are interesting, and
the quaint, double-panel cupboards on each side
lend the whole an insistent charm. The two,
great, hand-hewn beams in the ceiling have been
left exposed, and the fact that they have settled
a little on their supports, sagging toward one end,
only adds to the eifect, just as the unevenness of
a hand-drawn line is more beautiful than the
accuracy of one ruled.
These three rooms opening so closely into each
other have been treated so that there is a har-
monious and striking vista from every point.
The walls are covered with a soft, creamy gray,
and the hangings of Russian crash are of the same
tone. The color is supplied in fireplaces, rugs,
books, pictures, and such ornaments. In the
dining-room, there has been a slight accent of
blue and rose in rug and table runner and candle-
shades. In the living-room the deep green of the
upholstery carries the strongest note. The char-
acteristically old-time furniture, with a pleasant
mingling of Dutch and English and American
motifs of the eighteenth century, has been ar-
ranged with studied care to preserve the possi-
bilities of the open vistas from room to room.
The entrance hall completes a delightful picture
from the living-room; the soft gray colors of a
lovely Japanese paper blend strikingly with tiny
curtains of a wonderfully fresh old blue at the
casement windows. The rag carpet carries this
same blue up the white stairs to the second floor.
The rooms on the right of the lower hallway
have been kept nearly in their original state
with the addition of fresh paint and attractive
papers. They form a small suite of a study and
bedroom, seeming quite apart from the rest of
On the second floor, a refreshing simplicity has
been observed in the bedrooms. The dormers
that have been cut in the roof add not only to
their comfort but provide charming little bays and
alcoves, giving unexpected opportunities for in-
teresting furnishings. Quaint, old-time papers
and hangings and coverlets on the four-poster
beds, matched in rugs and cushions and candle-
shades, contrast gaily with the spotless white
paint. Considerable ingenuity has been necessary
in planning this floor, as the original rooms were
so tiny and space so very limited under the long
slopes of the roof. The dormers gave the much
needed increase in the size of the chambers, and
part of the rear one was converted into the bath-
In the ell and shed at the rear of the house,
perhaps the most interesting feature of all is
situated. A step lower than the dining-room
and reached through swinging French doors of
glass, is the little kitchen which has been fitted
up in a most compact way. An additional
window has been cut at the side to provide both
light and air, and an outside door gives access to
the small court on the far side of the house be-
tween the main building and the rear shed. This
has been turned into a miniature old-fashioned
garden, where it is pleasant to sit among the
Back of the kitchen is the laundry and an old
well, which has been drained and is now used as
a cooling cellar, and the wire basket containing
meats and milk and butter is drawn up and down
on the old crank. Beyond this, the old wood and
coal shed has been transformed into the studio.
Here Mrs. Shaw designs all her beautiful jewelry
work at the long work-table across the rear under
the four long windows. Opening from it is a
tiny little apartment used as an office, and here
at a quaint desk, the designs for the metal work
are sketched out, and the correspondence con-
nected with the business end transacted.
In the adaptation of the outbuildings to the
special and unusual requirements of the owner,
an excellent example is given to others who have
individual hobbies such as this to accommodate.
But throughout the building the needs and the
personality of the owner have been as carefully if
not as ostensibly expressed. There has been no
thought of comfort or of service sacrificed in the
effort to revive the atmosphere of the past, but
rather has that very simplicity and straight-
forwardness been utilized to banish all that might
complicate entire convenience. The personality
of the owner has been interwoven into every
detail, and shows nowhere more strongly than in
the preservation of all the delightful vagaries and
unevenness of hand work played upon and mel-
lowed by time.
THE ROBERT SPENCER HOUSE
THE prospective house owner generally has
little or no idea of how to go about designing his
own home. If he chances to see some other house
that strikes his fancy, he realizes that it approaches,
at least in part, what he has in mind. How to
accomplish his desire, however, he has no definite
knowledge. He hesitates to call in an architect
who is a stranger to him and knows nothing of his
needs and habits and preferences ; he fears that an
attempt to combine his own ideas with those of
the architect will result unsatisfactorily to both
of them. To such a man as this, the remodeled
farmhouse comes as a boon. From the old house
he is able to determine what type his home will
be; no matter how battered and worn it is to
start with, he can get some impression of the
possible room space and arrangement by studying
other old interiors and their relation to each other.
That is one of the reasons why the movement
sweeping through the country to-day has become
THE ROBERT SPENCER HOUSE
so extensive. It gives a substantial foundation
upon which to develop an artistic home under
one's own supervision.
When a man purchases a weather-beaten farm-
house, it is evident that he is up against a real
problem in remodeling, and the task demands
plenty of time and a wide-awake, ingenious brain.
If he consults his friends and neighbors across the
way, doubtless their opinions differ so materially
from his own that the result is worse than if he
had solved the questions in his own way. We all
have ideals, but it is not always easy to express
them; they need to be developed in order to be
made practical and require thought and diligent
research if they are to be concretely embodied in
the altered home. Paper and pencil are good
friends at this stage of the game, and even a rough
sketch drawn carelessly on the back of an old
envelope, as an idea occurs, gives subject matter
for larger schemes and more realistic results.
Few people who are planning to spend the
summer months in a new house realize how much
their comfort depends upon light and space.
It would be foolish for you to buy an old farm-
house and make the rooms small and cramped
in size. You would lose a gre^t part of the advan-
tage of coming to the country to live, the pleasure
of being as nearly out of doors as possible. Most
of the old houses were cut up into small rooms,
for, owing to the limited heating facilities in olden
days, large rooms would have been freezing in
winter; accordingly one or two bedrooms were
invariably crowded into the first floor to receive
the warmth from the kitchen. But it is almost
always possible to tear out the partitions between
some of the rooms and make them into one large
apartment which can be used for living purposes.
This can usually be done without weakening the
structure; the floor above will be found to rest
upon a great beam, or a new girder can be put
* If the stud is low, do not change it, or you will
spoil the whole atmosphere of the place. A low
stud and large rooms are good developments, so
try to achieve them when you are making over
the house. Have plenty of windows ; in the old
days, many windows meant a cold house in the
winter, but if the farmhouse is to be used only as
a summer home, the cooler the better. If for a
winter residence also, modern systems of heating
will counteract the difficulty. Windows of the
long French type are especially desirable; they
THE ROBERT SPENCER HOUSE
are more adapted to the requirements of country
life, as they admit abundant light and air and are
entirely in keeping with the style of the farmhouse.
The house should represent a unit; the porch
should be planned so that it leads into the living-
room, and by throwing open the windows, will
seem to become part of a large airy room. The
dining-room should either be part of the living-
room or open conveniently near. The service
quarters must immediately adjoin the dining-room.
If there is other space on the floor which cannot be
used to increase the comfort of the two main
rooms, well and good; it may then be devoted
to whatever purpose you desire. But when the
removal of partitions will make a place more
pleasant to live in, it is always wise to make such
We know that there are few of these old
houses that have not been cut up and divided;
but the conditions which made that necessary in
the earlier days have been changed, and for a
simple country house one large living and dining-
room is far better than divisions which shut out
light and air. Many people look at these propo-
sitions from a limited view-point and do not
stop to consider the complete idea. We all learn
from houses that we visit what is right and what
is wrong to do. If we look deeper into the subject
and go farther afield, we find it pays to carefully
develop the plan before commencing to rebuild.
The requirements of elaborate modes of life,
liveried servants and much entertaining, demand,
of course, many apartments ; reception-room and
drawing-room, library and den seem essential in
the house plan, but for those who come to the
country to simplify existence, these are not needed.
In remodeling your house, let three things be
uppermost in your mind : convenience, comfort,
and light; if you follow these, you will not go
Even a very small house need not be devoid of
these qualities. It may be very tiny and yet
most attractive and complete in every detail.
With careful thought and a broad conception of
the whole, it is quite possible to make a place where
it is a pleasure to visit and where even the casual
guest realizes the application of small and inter-
esting details in making a harmonious whole.
Do not let your mind wander from the fact that
the interior is of as much importance, and even
more, than the exterior, for it is there that we live
much of the time during the season, and it should
THE ROBERT SPENCER HOUSE
therefore be harmonious and in good taste. The
development of one room for common family use,
and the elimination of the shut-up parlor for
company, have brought about an atmosphere of
simplicity that goes to make a perfect and livable
This one-room idea has been charmingly carried
out in a small house that has been remodeled for
a summer home by Mr. Robert Spencer of New
York and South Yarmouth. It is most attrac-
tively situated, standing far back from the road,
with a background of pine trees that give a pic-
turesque touch to the little cottage. Originally
it stood on the opposite side of the bay, on the
shores of Cape Cod at South Dennis, Massachu-
setts. Its possibilities seemed to the present
owner worth developing, and he had it "flecked"
and brought over the water to its present site.
This was not a hard task to accomplish, as the
timbers were stanch and in a good state of
It was a typical fisherman's cottage, with a
wide gable roof sloping down to the first story
and four small rooms about a central chimney.
To meet the needs of the new owner, it required
considerable enlargement. A two-story building
was added at the rear and side, meeting the
main house only along the corner. Little attempt
was made to have the two harmonize, for not only
are the roof lines of widely different types, but
the frame of one is of white clapboarding and of
the other weathered shingle. At the angle where
they join, the roof of the old building has been
raised to accommodate the higher stud in the new,
thus making a break in it near the ridge.
Two dormers have been cut in the main roof
to give extra room in the second floor ; these are
flat-roofed and well spaced, with two windows
occupying the entire front of each. A porch has
been added across the whole front of the house
and half of it is roofed over. This breaks
with the slope of the main roof, but follows
that of the dormers. A detail which adds much
to the appearance of the exterior is the simple,
square-posted fence that surrounds the porch
and encloses a quaint little garden in the square
formed by the angle of the two buildings. This
same detail has been adopted at the side of the
porch roof in an effective way. This fence, and
the clapboards and trim of the house, are white,
and the shutters and shingles are green.
The front door opens immediately into the liv-
Two Views of the Living Room
THE ROBERT SPENCER HOUSE
The Attic Chambers
THE ROBERT SPENCER HOUSE
THE ROBERT SPENCER HOUSE
ing and dining-room which occupies the whole right
side of the house and opens at the rear on to a
grassy terrace. A triple window has been cut along
the side to allow ample light and air. Small
panes are used in these windows, and the French
doors have glass of corresponding size. The
feature of this room is the fine old fireplace at the
center of the inside wall. It is very simple, with
slight attempt at ornamentation, but the propor-
tions are good, and the lines rather unusual.
Over the fireplace is an old cupboard that used
to be called a "nightcap closet" from the hos-
pitable bottle which was kept there to be passed
around among the men just before retiring. At
the left is a cupboard with upper and lower doors ;
in the panels of the former, panes of glass have
been inserted. This end of the room has been
treated as the living-room and the opposite end as
the dining-room. The woodwork is all white,
and the roughly finished plaster is tinted a deep
Straight stairs lead to the second story along
the wall at the dining end of the room. Here,
about the walls, a wide molding has been carried
over doors and windows, which serves as a plate-
rail for numerous interesting old family plates
and jugs. Beneath it, in several places, shelves
have been bracketed to the wall to hold other
pieces of china. The glass door at the end opens
on to the terrace, and the paneled door beside it
communicates with the kitchen and servants'
quarters in the addition.
The furnishings in this room admirably accord
with the building in both age and simplicity.
The older furniture has been supplemented with
modern pieces of straightest and most unpreten-
tious line and character. Clocks, mirrors, pic-
tures, andirons, and fire-set are family heirlooms.
The coverings on the floor are large and plain rag
carpets ; at the windows are simple muslin cur-
tains, with overhangings of Colonial chintz in soft
colors harmonizing with the cheerful and sunny
atmosphere of the room.
At the left of this room, occupying the other
side of the house, are two bedrooms. One of them
is the childrens' own room and has been furnished
very attractively; fresh white tables and chairs
harmonize with the older mahogany pieces and
lend an air of distinctive charm to the apartment.
The space up-stairs is divided into large and
small rooms under the eaves. The slope of the
roof allows room for many built-in drawers and
THE ROBERT SPENCER HOUSE
closets, and every inch has been utilized. The
white paint and the simple white furniture ar-
ranged with a care and precision that is worthy of
emulation contribute to make the effect of these
rooms light and airy and inviting. The Japanese
crepe or gay cretonne curtains at the windows add
just the necessary touch of color.
The lighting fixtures in the house demand
especial notice, as it is so difficult a matter to
attain a distinction in them when a house has not
been wired but must depend upon older methods
of illumination than electricity or gas. -A number
of simple candle brackets attaching to the wall
have been purchased, and these are placed sym-
metrically in pairs, balancing each other on either
side of a fireplace or mirror or window. The
candlesticks for shelf or table have been arranged
with equal precision, and some are given all the
more importance by attractive hand-made shades.
An occasional simple, square, candle lantern
hangs from the ceiling to contribute to the effect.
The table and reading lamps have been chosen
with equal success.
THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE
IN planning the remodeling of a farmhouse,
has it ever occurred to you how much of the ap-
pearance of the exterior depends upon the archi-
tecture of verandas and porches ? Not only must
we give much thought to the alteration of the
lines of the house which may be required by the
interior plan, but we must be equally careful when
it comes to the addition of entirely exterior
Modern country life demands plenty of veranda
room and, whenever possible, sleeping-porches.
One does not go to the country to sit indoors,
even if the windows are all thrown open. There
is nothing that will so materially improve the
health as outdoor life; tired and jaded nerves
are soon restored by use of a sleeping-porch,
where the fresh air can soothe and induce restful
slumber. In the early days, the porch or ve-
randa did not exist ; it may be supposed that our
pioneer ancestors were too busy to enjoy any
THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE
leisurely hours out of doors ; at least, they made
no provision in connection with their houses for
As the details of the exterior became more
elaborate, the entrance porch was developed with
free-standing columns. In time, this assumed
greater importance, especially in the south, where
columns the height of the whole building sup-
ported a roof across its entire front. In the
north, the veranda was less frequently used, but
there is occasional authority for both the front
and the less pretentious back piazza. It is one
of the additions which are imperative in remodel-
ing the house, however, and it becomes something
of a problem because there is no more definite
authority for it.
If there is to be simply an entrance porch,
offering a bit of shelter at the front door for
stranger or friend, it may have much precedent
in the porches of Georgian houses. In planning
this, take into consideration that it should be an
index of what one will find in the interior ; it should
be the keynote, as it were, of the entire house.
Here we may have the same details and the same
proportions as in the cornice of the roof, or the
fireplace within. We find many porches that
are sadly out of keeping with the rest of the house
and seem very carelessly designed. It is far
better to have none at all than one which is
insignificant and out of scale ; yet it must not be
more elaborate than the house itself and tend to
dwarf the main structure. Few people realize
how important this feature is and how necessary
that it should be a satisfactory adjunct to the
architecture of the whole. It is almost the first
thing we notice as we approach the house.
Whether it is well placed and rightly proportioned,
whether it has a proper overhang, good roof lines,
and adequately supported cornice, affects to a
very great extent the style and character of
There were a great many different types of
porch in the Georgian houses : the simple hood
with a high-backed settle on either side that was
commonly used at a side entrance; the gable-
roofed and flat-roofed, square porch and circu-
lar, open and partly enclosed, with round and oval
windows at the sides, were all developed to high
perfection. The simple, Doric column, plain or
fluted, with corresponding pilasters or * three-
fourths round against the house, was used on
many of the porches; but the Ionic and Corin-
THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE
THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE
thian capitals are more elaborate than is appro-
priate for the simplicity of a farmhouse. From
the infinite number of models which can be found,
it should be a comparatively easy matter to con-
struct an entrance porch, utilizing the details
found in the house.
A veranda demands somewhat different manner
of procedure. First it is necessary to decide
where it shall be put. Where will it receive the
best air and the least sun ? It must, presumably,
open from or adjacent to the living-room and yet be
so placed that its roof will not cut off too much
light. If the house is uncomfortably near the
highway or neighbors, the matter of privacy
cannot be neglected, and a thought may well be
given to the outlook from the piazza. Let it
enjoy any advantage of a fine view or a picturesque
garden that may be compatible with its other
requirements. Thus it may be at the front, at
either or both sides, or in the rear. At the side
of the ordinary, gable-roofed house, the roof of
the veranda should as a rule be flat. If it is
possible to continue the roof line of the house to
include that of the porch, by all means let it be
done; the unbroken sweep will usually be found
excellent. At some angles it may seem too long
and severe; then it is often possible to put a
slight "kick" in it, especially if there is anything
of the Dutch type about the building.
The floor of the porch in farmhouses should be
low ; it may be on a level with that of the house,
or a step below it. It is well to let the under-
pinning be a continuation of that of the house,
and it may then be covered with brick or tile, or
the conventional boards. The columns or posts
which support the roof are a stumbling block for
many remodelers. These should closely copy the
entrance porch, if there is one; even if it be no
more than a flat semblance of a pilaster about
the frame of the door, it will supply the correct
motive. Lacking this, there will undoubtedly
be some detail in the interior which can be magni-
fied to the right proportion for the exterior, the
upright of a mantel or the frame of a door. For
a house which can boast no such source of sugges-
tion, a straight, square post with a simple mold-
ing would be the solution. The cornice should
follow the detail of the entrance door or the house
cornice ; and it is eifective and increases the appar-
ent unity to repeat the decoration of the one on
The rails and balusters of old houses were
THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE
extremely simple and should be kept so in the
remodeling. In the very early examples, the
balusters were square and spaced far apart ; later
both square and turned balusters were used, and
they were spaced twice their width. The design
for these can often be taken from the stairs in the
interior of the house. It is the modern tendency
to use no railing about verandas, particularly
when they are low or when they are screened in.
Some of the flat-roofed type had a railing around
the roof, and an open-air porch was thus made
for the second story.
Sometimes this porch can be utilized as a sleep-
ing-porch on the second floor. This feature,
while of course entirely foreign to the farmhouse,
has become as much a necessity in many families
as the open-air living-room, and it is therefore
logical to introduce it where possible to do so with-
out destroying the lines of the building. It is
better, however, to do without it than to add it
in such a way that it will seem an afterthought
and not really incorporated in the structure.
Often it can be placed in a wide dormer cut in the
slope of the roof; sometimes the roof line can be
extended over the roof of the sleeping-porch, or
again it may be merely a room with the walls
largely cut away. Each remodeler will have his
own problem in connection with this, and by
ingenuity and careful study must work it out to
his own satisfaction. Remember always that
the integral simplicity of the building must not
be disturbed, and that whether it be sleeping-
porch, veranda, or entrance portico, it must seem
always a part of the original building, as if it were
the conception of the master craftsman who
erected the first timbers.
Most gratifying results along this line are shown
in an old farmhouse at Medfield, Massachusetts,
which was built in 1755. Like many other old
houses, this had fallen into decay and stood neg-
lected and unoccupied by the side of the road
while the extensive grounds lay unkempt and
desolate. But Mr. Davenport Brown recognized
in it a house that could be made to serve most
acceptably as the foundation of his summer home.
It is of the Georgian type, built with the hall
and straight flight of stairs as the axis. There are
two main chimneys opening into four fireplaces
on the first floor. A service wing has been added
at the left, parallel with the main building, and
half its width. Back of that, an ell of equal size
extends at right angles. Both of these are two
THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE
storied, but the upper stud is somewhat lower
than in the main building, thus allowing it to re-
tain its predominance in the design.
The main part is given further importance
by the dignified entrance porch. Two three-
fourths round and two free-standing, fluted,
Doric columns are used, supporting a cornice
and a gabled roof, the details of which repeat
those in the cornice of the house. A rather
unusual type of scalloped dentation lends addi-
tional interest. The frame about the door is
arched over, and there are side lights and an
overhead fanlight in a simple style that carries out
the Colonial tradition.
The hall leads past the stairs and through an
open doorway to the rear of the house, where there
is another entrance, repeating the design of the
front one. This is some distance from the rear
wall of the house, and consequently there is a
small, arched-over portico formed within the
lines of the building. The walls of this are pan-
eled, and on each side is a built-in seat. The floor
is tiled, and the woodwork painted white.
At each end of the main part of the building is
a flat-roofed veranda carrying out the details of
the entrance porch in column and cornice. The
same dentil ornamentation that appears on the
cornice of the house is used here in smaller size,
as on the entrance porch. Around the edges of
the flat roofs, boxes filled with blooming plants
and vines form an original and most attractive
method of softening the sharp lines and finish of
the house. The veranda on the right side over-
looking the wide lawns and gardens is used largely
as the outdoor living-room and is screened in.
The spacing of the bars and framework of the
screening is well proportioned and adds not a little
to the decoration. The floor of the veranda is
edged with brick and paved in the center with
square tiles which slope toward a drain at one
side. This wing of the living-room has been com-
fortably furnished with canvas hammocks and
Chinese grass chairs and stools, and even a sand-
box for the children finds room here.
In the central hall, the details carry out the
character of the old period carefully. There is a
white unpaneled wainscot carved around the
walls and up the stairs, with a similar treatment in
the second-floor hall. The stairs are wide, with
white risers and mahogany treads, and the hand-
rail is mahogany supported on white, turned
balusters and a mahogany newel post. The
The Sun-Parlor or Out-door Nursery
THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE
Two of the Chambers
THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE
THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE
upper walls are papered in a gray landscape paper,
and the furnishings consist of a pair of Sheraton
At the right of the hall, the two rooms have
been combined into a living-room by cutting
double arches on either side of the fireplaces
which open from the back and front of the chim-
ney. The furnishings are especially interesting
here, as there are a number of rare and beautiful
pieces. The mantel mirror over the front fire-
place is a fine example of American workmanship.
The mahogany frame divides its length into three
sections, and it is ornamented with carved and
gilded husk festoons ; the scroll top is surmounted
with a gilt spread eagle. In front of the fire there
is a beautiful little Sheraton fire-screen. Chairs
and tables are equally interesting ; there is an old
"comb-back" chair and an upholstered "Martha
Washington" chair, as well as more modern easy
chairs and davenports. The upholstery and cur-
tains are of small-patterned, Colonial fabrics
that carry out the spirit of the room. In the
back part of this room, a large double window has
been cut, looking out over the gardens and the
grounds. Underneath it is a most attractive
window-seat suggestive of an old-time settle, and
on each side low book-shelves extend around the
whole end of the room.
The dining-room is situated at the left of the
hallway. The fireplace and paneling hold the
attention in this room. The woodwork is very
simple but well proportioned, and on either
side of the mantel are narrow, built-in, china
closets with small, leaded, diamond panes in
both upper and lower parts of the door and even
in a transom over it. The walls above the un-
paneled wainscot are painted white and divided
into simple, large panels with narrow moldings.
The furniture in this room is suggestive of the
early part of the nineteenth century, with the
exception of the Queen Anne type of chair. Over
the heavy and massive sideboard is a long gilt mir-
ror of the Empire "banister" type; between the
two side windows is a gilt, convex girandole with
three branching candlesticks on each side. On the
mantel is a fine example of a Willard shelf clock,
and on each side of it are tall mahogany candlesticks
with the old-fashioned wind glasses. The over-
curtains at the windows are a soft rose damask;
they hang from gilded cornices and are caught back
on gilded rosettes, the style of draping which is
carried out in all the main rooms of the house.
THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE
The service wing opens from the left of the din-
ing-room, and the den, which is back of it, with a
fireplace on the opposite side of the same chimney,
is reached from the rear of the hall.
At the head of the stairs at the right, one enters
the bright and sunny nursery. Here the fireplace
is very simple and has no overmantel. The wood-
work is white, and a broad molding divides the
upper part of the wall. Below is a quaint paper
picturing Mother Goose scenes which the children
never tire of studying. The furniture is mainly
white, and the little chairs and tables in child's
size are decorated in peasant fashion with painted
flowers and lines of color.
There are two other bedrooms in the main part
of the house and each has an open fireplace. The
furnishings are simple and old-fashioned in char-
acter, retaining the Colonial atmosphere admi-
rably. In one room there is a Field bedstead of
English make, dating about 1780, showing reeded
posts and a curved canopy top. The chairs and
the little night stand at the side of the bed are
in close harmony with the period of its design.
In the other chamber are twin beds which are
modern reproductions of four-posters, but other
furnishings retain the distinctive atmosphere of age.
Over one bureau there is a fine mirror with the
Georgian eagle ornamentation; in keeping with
it are the old fireside wing chair and a side chair
of Sheraton type.
The most interesting bedroom, perhaps, is
in the wing of the house, where Hannah Adams,
the first American authoress, was born. This is
reached by a cross hall which leads from the main
one, and gives access to baths and rear stairs
and another tiny bedroom. Although the old
fireplace has been remodeled, the aspect of the
room is much the same as when the house was
built. The woodwork here is all dark, and the
hand-hewn rafters and cross beams are exposed
in the ceiling. An unusual wall-paper in black
and gay colors forms an interesting background
for the four-poster and other old furnishings.
An old batten door with a quaint little window in
the center strip leads from this room to the cham-
bers in the service ell.
Much of the house has been restored under the
direction of the architect, Mr. John Pickering
Putnam of Boston, and to him the credit for its
successful remodeling must be largely given.
The planning and laying out of the grounds about
the house, however, are the work of the owner,
THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE
who has spared no pains to make a harmonious
setting for his home.
Between the house and the road is a row of
great overshadowing elms that make a delightful
setting for the red and white of the house. The
drive sweeps around these trees to the stable on
the left and is separated from the house and the
lawns by white palings in a simple Colonial pat-
tern, having fine, carved posts surmounted by
balls. The fence stops at either side of the front
to allow wide space for a heavy embankment of
conifers. Somewhat back of this fence, along
the whole length of the lawn, is a second lower
one, with posts of the same height. This marks
the boundary of the wide lawn and forms a charm-
ing background for an old-fashioned hardy border
that extends all the way to a swimming-pool and
pergolas at the far end. Immediately behind the
house is the flower garden, from which all the
blossoms used to decorate the house are cut;
this is screened by a white trellis and pergola,
carrying out some of the details of the entrance
porches and verandas.
THE DOCTOR CHARLES E. INCHES HOUSE
A VERY interesting feature in an old farmhouse
is the fireplace, which varies in size with the age
of the house ; the oldest ones are large, with cavern-
ous mouths, since they were the only means of
heating the house. These are capable of holding
a ten-foot log, for it must be remembered that at
that period of our country's history the woods
grew at the very door.
A few of these old fireplaces are found to-day,
principally in the old kitchens or living-rooms,
although occasionally we see an old house which
has them in almost every room. There is a
great variety in their design as well as size, some
being very simple and framed in wood, while
others show tiling ; occasionally we find elaborate
carving, but this is in the better class building
rather than in the simple little farmhouse. These
details denote the different periods and also the
wealth of the former owner.
With the introduction of stoves, many fireplaces
The Service Wing
THE DAVENPORT BROWN HOUSE
THE DOCTOR CHARLES E. INCHES HOUSE
were bricked in to accommodate an air-tight
stove which gave more heat and saved fuel. One
unaccustomed to the features of an old farmhouse
would infer a lack of fireplaces. The removal of
brick and mortar, however, reveals the large,
cavernous hearth which was often three feet deep
and sometimes showed a second bricking in, to
make it smaller. Often in the narrowing of the
fireplace, tiles are used, generally Dutch, which are
blue and white in coloring. Occasionally in open-
ing up these fireplaces, one comes across rare old
andirons that were considered of too little value to
be removed ; old cranes and kettles are also found, of
the type common in the days of our early ancestors.
It must be remembered that the chimneys of
these old houses were often six feet square and
had many fireplaces opening from them. It was
the central feature of the house, around which
the rooms were built. The earliest chimneys
were daubed in clay, and in the masonry oak
timbers were often used. In remodeling a house
many people tear down these old chimneys for
the space which may be converted into closet
use and alcoves, making a smaller chimney do
In the olden times, when the first chimneys
were erected, they were so carefully built that
they were less liable to smoke than the smaller
ones, so that it is better to let the old one remain
if possible. Brick was generally used in the con-
struction, although sometimes we find stone.
It was not the finished brick of to-day but rough
and unfaced. This was not true, however, of
those which formed a part of cargoes from
abroad, more especially those brought from Hol-
land. The use of stone was not popular, as it was
apt to chip when brought in contact with the
heat ; this is also true of the hearthstones, where
the flagging became rough and most unsatisfac-
The fireback was a feature of some of the old
fireplaces. The earliest of these made in our
country were cast in Saugus, Massachusetts, and
some were most elaborate in design. Often coats-
of-arms and initials were worked out in their
construction. In addition to the brick and stone,
soapstone facings were sometimes shown, but
seldom do we come across good carving.
The crane was a feature of the fireplace, and
on it were hung the pothooks from which depended
the iron and brass pots in which food was cooked.
In one side of the bricks, just at the left of the
THE DOCTOR CHARLES E. INCHES HOUSE
fireplace, was often a large brick oven with an
iron door, and here on baking days roaring wood
fires were kindled to heat the bricks before the
weekly baking was placed within. Examination
of these old ovens will be very apt to reveal the
age of the house.
In the remodeling it is well to leave the fire-
places much as they stand, with the exception of
bricking them in, for the old ones allowed too
much air to come down the chimney, and at the
present high price of wood, we are not able to
indulge in the ten-foot logs that were in evidence
in our grandmothers' time.
A house with many fireplaces that stands back
from the winding country road on the border line
between Medfield and Walpole in Massachusetts
was chosen for a summer home by Charles E.
Inches. It is shaded now as it was long ago by
large, old elms whose widespreading branches
seem to add a note of hospitality to this most
attractive estate. Possibly there are better exam-
ples of the restored farmhouse than this one found
at Medfield, but it is very picturesque, not only in
type but in surroundings. It stands near a turn of
the road, where it was erected, in 1652, situated in
a sheltered glen and protected from cold winds.
At that time it was a small and unpretentious
building about twenty feet long and showing in
the interior fine examples of hand-hewn timbers.
Even in its dilapidated state it was most attrac-
tive, with its many fireplaces and old woodwork.
This particular house has two values, the one re-
lating to its historical record and the other to
its old-time construction. Through two centuries
this little farmhouse had been the home of the
Adams family, a branch that was near in kin to
the presidential line of Adams who lived at Quincy,
At the time of its building, a stream wound in
and out through the meadow land that was a
part of the property. It was such a large stream
that it afforded sufficient power to run an old mill
that originally stood on the estate and which for
many years ground the neighbors' grain. On a
ridge opposite the house, worn stone steps lead
up through pastures to a sturdy oak which stands
nearly opposite the front of the house and is
known in history as the "whipping tree." Here,
in Colonial days, wrong-doers were tied to be
whipped. Just before we reach the stone wall,
which was laid probably by the slaves held by
the landowner of that period, we find an old
THE DOCTOR CHARLES E. INCHES HOUSE
mounting-block. On the side of one of the stones
are the figures 1652 ; and it was from this block
that many a Colonial dame mounted to her pillion
to ride in slow and dignified style behind her
worthy squire. Even in those days the grounds
were very extensive and reached for many acres.
These to-day have been reclaimed and laid down
to grass land and garden.
Half way between the house and the tennis
court which defines the estate is a wonderful old
garden which has been designed not so much for
show purposes as to supply flowers all through
the season. This is not the only garden on the
place, for back of it is the vegetable garden and
the old-fashioned one. The dividing line between
the two is a row of stately trees which hide the
former from view at the front of the house.
Rows of apple-trees, many of which were on the
estate when it was first purchased, remnants of
the original orchard, surround in part the tennis
court, behind which is a swimming pool which is
in frequent use. This is about twenty-five feet
long and twelve wide, cemented to a depth of
seven feet; with its background of tall poplars
it is very artistic and lends itself to all sorts of
During the latter part of the nineteenth cen-
tury, new life came to the old house. It had
stood for years, weather-beaten and old, guarding
the family name. While the outside was very
attractive and in tolerably good repair, it was the
interior that appealed especially. There was
beautiful old wainscoting and paneling of wide
boards, some of which was split from logs at least
thirty inches in width. Great reverence was
paid by the owner to the original structure, partic-
ularly to the old kitchen with its large, brick
fireplace and chimney which was restored to its
Sagging plaster was removed, and underneath
were found well-preserved, hand-hewn beams and
rafters. These were carefully cleaned and consid-
ered of such great beauty that they were left
exposed as far as possible, more especially those
which showed the sign of the adze. The walls,
which had been previously neglected, were stripped
of wall-papers which were in some places ten
thicknesses deep. In removing one of these,
a wonderfully fine landscape paper was discovered,
and although every attempt was made to save it,
it was too far defaced. Under the paper was a
wide paneling of white pine, so good that it needed
O i i
THE DOCTOR CHARLES E. INCHES HOUSE
only a slight restoration. In the opening of the
fireplace the crane, pothook, and hangers were
found to be intact, while many pieces of ancestral
pewter and copper were polished and placed in
proper position on the wide, receding chimney.
This was to give it the look of the olden days,
when pewter was used for the table. There
was no bricking in of this old fireplace, for it was
considered such a wonderful example that it was
left in its original state. The old flint-lock that
did service in the early war was hung over the
fireplace, while from the chimney hook the old-time
kettles were swung much as they did in the days
when they were used for cooking purposes. The
old brick oven used by the Adams family was not
removed, and at one side of the fireplace a long
braid of corn was hung in conformity with the
custom of that period. The hand-hewn rafters
and beams have been left intact in this room, as
has the old woodwork, so that the kitchen, now
used as a den, is an exact reproduction of the
original room. It is the most interesting apart-
ment in the house, being situated at the right of
the entrance and furnished with old family heir-
looms, including five rare slat-back chairs, a rush-
bottomed rocking-chair, and a settle of the same
period. Even the wide boards that were used in the
original flooring have been retained, and the old
brick hearth, showing wide bricks such as are never
found in modern residences. To meet present re-
quirements, the cellar was cemented, and a furnace
added, in order that the occupants need not
depend entirely on the fireplaces for heat.
In the hallway, the stairway, following the
lines of many Colonial houses, rises at one side.
Here the wall-paper is wonderfully preserved,
being in the old colors of yellow and white and of
a very old design. It was made in England over
a century ago and gives an appropriate atmosphere
to the entrance of the attractive old home.
. The living-room, which is spacious and com-
fortable, is at the right just before you enter the
den. The woodwork has been painted white,
following the Colonial idea, while old-fashioned,
diamond-paned windows have been substituted
for the original ones. Here, as throughout all
the house, one comes unexpectedly upon groups
of shelves filled with books. There are built-in
cupboards that provide places for the wonderful
collection of books, many of which are rare editions,
owned by the present occupants. Like every
room in the house, this shows several tables of
THE DOCTOR CHARLES E. INCHES HOUSE
unusually fine design, a handsome side-wing chair,
and a few other choice pieces. The great open
fireplace with its Colonial accessories lends much
to the hominess of this room.
At the left of the hallway is the large and spa-
cious dining-room, which is in reality three rooms
opened into one, the partitions showing in the
beamed ceilings. The walls are finished in green
textile and are left unornamented with the excep-
tion of one or two choice pictures. There was
a method in the construction of this room which
was planned for unbroken spaces to bring out to
advantage the lines of the beautiful old side-
board. Then, too, the space shows off the
lines of the rush-bottomed chairs that are used
for dining-chairs. The mantel, framed in white
wood, is hung with rare porringers, ranging from
large to baby size. There is a restful atmosphere
about this room, that, combined with its perfect
setting, is most refreshing. At the farther end
of the room, French doors open upon the sun par-
lor which is used during the summer months for a
breakfast-room. This overlooks the garden.
The bedrooms up-stairs are large and airy, each
one of them being carefully furnished with Colonial
pieces which include four-posters, high and low-
boys as well as quaint, old-time chests of drawers
that can do service as bureaus, or as storage space
for extra blankets, hangings, or rugs.
The floors throughout the entire house are of
hard wood, many of them being the original ones
that were laid when the house was built. Rare old
Chippendale, Sheraton, and Hepplewhite chairs
are used in the furnishings, while hand-woven
rugs cover the floors. The windows are screened
by chintz hangings of bright colors and gay
designs, and the whole house presents a sunny,
At the rear of the house an ell has been added
where the new kitchen with all modern conven-
iences, pantries, servants' dining and sitting rooms
are found. Thus while the exterior features
of the old house have been carefully preserved,
the addition of the ell gives comfort and conven-
ience to the new building.
Shrubbery has been planted around the house,
and a veranda thrown out; window-boxes filled
with brilliantly blossoming plants add a bit of
color to the remodeled farmhouse which is painted
red with white trim. Velvety lawns have re-
placed the old-time farming lands, and the plant-
ing of trees has done much to add to the pictur-
The Hall and Stairway
The Living Room
THE CHARLES E. INCHES HOUSE
THE DOCTOR CHARLES E. INCHES HOUSE
esqueness of this estate. The grounds themselves
are extensive, covering forty-five acres, and the
natural beauties are unusually varied. Broad
stretches of fields and hills intersected with trees
make a most appropriate setting for the old Adams
THE CHARLES MARTIN LOEFFLER HOUSE
IT was a staircase that was responsible for the
remodeling of one house which had no other
unusual feature. It was designed by a village car-
penter whose object was four walls and a shelter
rather than architectural beauty. The structure
was so simple and unobtrusive that it did not
arouse any enthusiasm in the heart of the archi-
tect who examined it, for it presented no chance
to show his ability in its remodeling. It was the
kind of a farmhouse that one would find in almost
any suburban town, built without any pretensions,
its only good feature being the staircase which
saved it from passing into oblivion and caused it
to be remodeled into a charming, all-the-year-round
It had been unoccupied for a long period and
with exterior weather-beaten and interior unin-
habitable, it presented a forlorn appearance, re-
pelling to most would-be purchasers. It stood
by the side of a traveled road and in its best days
THE CHARLES MARTIN LOEFFLER HOUSE
was occupied by a farmer and his family who cared
more for the barn adjoining the house than they
did for the farmhouse itself.
The estate was a large one that had been
neglected and allowed to run down until weeds
and rank grass were so intermingled that it seemed
a discouraging task to bring it back into a good
state of cultivation. Adjoining the house, and
connected with it by a shed, was a large barn with
sagging roof and so dilapidated that it seemed
past restoring. Across the front, defining the
estate, was once a neat paling fence that had been
torn down until only a small portion remained.
Many acres of the estate were meadow-land
which swept to the horizon of trees, yet the once
fine apple orchard, though sadly in need of pruning,
showed promise, and there were possibilities in
the whole estate that needed only attention
and development to make them profitable. There
had been no one to care for the old house, and it
stood discouraged by the roadside awaiting a
It was in this condition when first seen by Mr.
Charles Martin Loeffler, whose experienced eye
discerned its possibilities. It is the wise man
who fits his house to his grounds and who in the
general scheme considers its surroundings. The
grass land, the garden, the orchards, the fencing
of the estate, each one of which demands separate
treatment, should be so arranged that they will
be profitable in the end. The new owner realized
this and also that he could not be too careful in
combining house and garden so that they would
make a harmonious whole.
The location was ideal, quiet and retired and
exactly what had been most desired, so the
remodeling was placed in the hands of a careful
architect, who, after thoroughly considering the
situation, decided it could not be done. It was
then that Mr. Loeffler took the matter into his
own hands, drawing exact plans of what was
necessary to achieve the desired result, and it
was under his personal direction that the workmen
began to remodel the unattractive little cottage.
It was borne in mind that even the addition of
a porch or veranda must be carefully considered
to avoid confusion of architecture so that the
house itself, when finished, should follow a single
idea and not a composite mass of details that were
entirely out of place and in bad taste. It was
realized that no house, no matter how situated,
should have discordant surroundings. Out-build-
THE CHARLES MARTIN LOEFFLER HOUSE
ings should not be allowed to mar the symmetry
of the house and should be removed so that they
would not be an eyesore but in keeping with the
The house itself, however, demanded attention
first; it was very small, with a pitched roof in
the upper story and a long ell connecting it with
the farm buildings. The exterior was left prac-
tically as when first purchased, with the excep-
tion of a small and well-planned porch at the
front, a long ell for servants' quarters, and a
wide veranda at the rear that extended the entire
length of the house. In the porch settles were
added on either side which help to give the house an
air of dignity and invite the guest to rest and
enjoy the beautiful scenery.
The screened-5n veranda at the back is used as
an out-of-doors living-room. It is wide, carpeted
with rugs, and furnished with simple but sub-
stantial pieces. It is a most comfortable place,
where charming views and wonderful vistas can
be enjoyed, for beyond lie the old orchard with
the meadows between and a background of finger-
pointed pines that seemingly melt into the blue
of the sky. Trellises were built on the garden
side of the house to carry vines, but this was
after the house had been given a coat of white
paint and the blinds painted green. Over the;
veranda a balcony was built which can be used
for outdoor sleeping purposes if desired. The
picket fence was restored and painted white
to match the coloring of the house, and a stone
wall was built at the farther end to enclose the
garden ; on the outside wild shrubs were planted
to give a note of color to the gray stone. The
old trees, pruned, took on a new life and are now
in a most flourishing condition ; across the entire
front, as a partial screening, silver-leafed poplars
were planted. The farm lands were reclaimed,
new trees planted in the old apple orchard, and
at the side of the house an attractive garden
was laid out with a background of apple-trees.
It was a small garden, only about an eighth of
an acre in size, and filled with old-fashioned flowers
to make it harmonize with the period in which
the house was built. A single path divides it
in two, and its color schemes have been given
At one side of the garden a rustic pergola has
been built with a central path of grass, and over
this a grapevine has been trained which makes
it a restful, shady place in summer, while in early
THE CHARLES MARTIN LOEFFLER HOUSE
fall the vines are loaded with great clusters of
purple grapes. Everywhere surrounding the gar-
den are stretches of green lawns that prove a fitting
setting to the bright blossoms in the trim and well-
kept beds. The fields beyond have been brought
back to a good state of cultivation and present
a beautiful green tract beyond which stretch rich
meadows with waving grass where flit the bobo-
link and the red-winged blackbird. In' the trees
around the house orioles and robins nest, while
everywhere the old apple-trees grow, many of them
gnarled and twisted with age. In the early fall,
loaded with fruit, they^ form an attractive color
note of red and yellow in the landscape. Great
care has been taken to remove the branches of
the old trees in order to afford attractive vistas.
This gives a landscape picture carefully planned
and creates a delightful feeling of restfulness and
a sense of relief from the bustle of city life.
Over the porch has been built a lattice to be
covered eventually with rambler roses, and in
order to obtain more light, clusters of windows
have been let in on either side of the front door.
The interior as well as the exterior has been
carefully planned with a regard to light and
views. One enters the house through the little
porch and finds himself in a spacious hallway
which extends to the living-room. The staircase
is at the right of the entrance. It is not a primi-
tive affair of the ladder type which is the earliest
on record ; neither is it steep with flat treads,
high risers and molded box stringers, but the
kind that shows simple posts and rail with plain
balusters. It is of the box stringer type and has
no carving in either post or balusters; it is
perfectly straight and leads by easy treads to the
The dining-room is at the left of the hallway
and is a room built for comfort and for every-
day life, showing plenty of windows. A feature is
the great, open fireplace and the bricked chimney-
breast, with small closets at one side. The wood-
work in this room is the same that was in the
house when it was discovered by Mr. Loeffler
and, cleaned and treated to a coat of paint, is
most attractive. The wide board floor has been
retained and stained dark to bring out the color
schemes of the rugs.
This room leads directly into the living-room
which extends entirely across the house and is
also entered from the hallway. Its windows
face the green fields studded with trees and also
Two Views of the Living Room
THE CHARLES M. LOEFFLER HOUSE
The Dining Room
The Music Room in the Studio Building
THE CHARLES M. LOEFFLER HOUSE
THE CHARLES MARTIN LOEFFLER HOUSE
overlook the old-fashioned garden which is near
enough to the house so that every summer breeze
wafts the perfume of its flowers to the occupants.
A central feature is a bricked-in fireplace that has
been built into the room. Instead of plastering,
the old oaken cross beams have been left in their
original state, and the room is finished with a
wainscot painted white, above which is a wall
covering of Japanese grass-cloth. Bookcases form
an important furnishing of this room which also
contains many pieces of antique furniture. It is
a cheerful, homelike apartment, into which the sun
shines practically all day long. Through large
French windows one steps from the living-room
on to the veranda. The second story is devoted
to chambers and bath.
Its location has a distinctive charm, as it is
not too near the city or too far away from
neighbors. It is well adapted for outdoor living,
with its wide, inviting veranda and the side garden
where bloom the stately phlox, the gaudy poppies,
and the bright-hued marigold.
As time went on, the house grew too small for
the owner's needs, and so another house just
across the way that had passed its prime and
stood desolate and deserted was also purchased
and remodeled into a studio, one room expressly
designed for Mr. Loeffler's work, large and
commodious with high, vaulted ceiling. Here,
too, a veranda was built across one end that can
be used if need be for an outdoor living-room.
It is shaded by many trees, more especially some
fine old elms whose graceful branches shadow the
house, while a stretch of lawn extends to the
street. Across the front a paling fence corre-
sponding in style to that across the street was
built, entrance being through a swinging gate
that leads directly to the outside porch. This
house shows less remodeling than the first one;
it is principally in the interior that changes have
been made. The whole front of the house is made
into a music-room of unusual type, being hung
with pictures of the old masters. Here the
second-story flooring has been removed, and the
ceiling vaulted and sheathed, in order to secure
A large chimney has been introduced into the
inner wall, with brick mantel and chimney breast,
and big enough to hold a six-foot log. The
floors are of polished hardwood, and the orna-
mentation shows Chinese ships hung upon the
walls, an interesting feature for interior decora-
THE CHARLES MARTIN LOEFFLER HOUSE
tion. The room is entered through French win-
dows that lead on to the outside porch.
In addition to the music-room, this house is
also used for the caretaker and week-end guests.
The long ell at one side is used for the former,
while at the back of the music-room several rooms
are fitted up for the use of guests, thus solving
a problem that is to-day vexing the minds of
many a house owner, more especially in subur-
There is about the whole place a restfulness
that has been achieved by careful planning and
attention to details. There is no part of the
estate where one may wander without coming
upon picturesque bits of landscape, that while
apparently in their natural state, yet are restored
and preserved with a true appreciation of nature.
This estate is a lesson in reclaiming and remodeling
that cannot fail to be instructive to all home build-
ers. It goes to show that forethought and in-
genuity can create a comfortable and inviting
home in the midst of desolation, and transform
an old dilapidated cottage into a charming and
THE old farmhouse can well be copied as a
type for the modern summer home, for its lines
are excellent, and its design is often so striking
that it lends itself to easy reproduction. To the
house owner of to-day it may seem a little strange
that, with the trend of modern improvements,
the old houses should be used for this purpose,
and the architecture of the master builders of
long ago shown preference over that of modern
architects who have given their life to this subject.
The builders and designers of old houses had to
depend on their own ideas or possibly on a few
designs that were sent over in the cumbersome
ships that plied between England and the new
country, the work of Sir Christopher Wren,
one of the most celebrated architects of his day.
There are no more satisfactory details of house
construction than we find in these old houses,
where fireplaces, doors, porches, and carving
show individuality. These ideas, modified and
improved upon, are found in many a twentieth-
century home, lending a dignity and charm that
would otherwise be lacking.
If you are remodeling an old house and wish
to change a fireplace that is unsatisfactory or a
stairway that is not artistic in design, do not intro-
duce modern ideas, but rather seek for an old
house that is being torn down and from it take
bits that will satisfactorily fit into the work of
remodeling. It is not a hard matter to find de-
tails of this kind, for many an old farmhouse has
been neglected so long that it is past redemption,
and it is the blending of the old with the old that
does much to keep distinctive the period that you
are seeking to preserve.
Sometimes the house has been badly mutilated,
often to such an extent that its best features are
disguised, and it is a serious problem to eliminate
the wrong ideas and duplicate the original. The
old craftsmen before Colonial times were apt to
build houses along certain lines which often failed
to bring proper results; details varied and some-
times were incongruous with the type of the house.
The first houses were generally one-roomed;
later, other rooms like units were gathered around
it, and the result in some cases was the appear-
ance of a lean-to. Later on came the ell, and,
to save steps, chambers were designed on the lower
floor, leading off the main rooms of the houses.
Naturally in houses of this kind the largest
room was the kitchen, for this was the family
living-room, more especially during the cold
We will find as we examine an old farmhouse
that the dominant portion of the building was the
first floor, and that the chambers were adapted
to the lower-story plan. These were not always
satisfactory, as little or no care was given to the
arrangement of the rooms, and in many houses
closets were little considered. The partitions
between these rooms were not double, like those
found to-day, but were made of matched board
and accommodated themselves to the frame-
work. Later on plastering came into vogue and
this made the rooms warmer and much more
The windows were generally spaced carefully
and were in harmony with the front door, making
an attractive exterior. The walls were of wood,
often with a layer of brick to keep out the cold
and also to form a better protection. The roofs,
more especially in the early houses, were very
steep, since they were planned for thatching;
later on, when shingles came into use, they grew
lower and wider. It was not until 1700 that
the gambrel roof came into style. In considering
the evolution of the house we must look back-
ward, and thus we come to realize the progres-
sion of architecture. We then discover that
every old house shows interesting features, and
it is the house with a history that makes its
greatest appeal to the antiquarian ; while the re-
vival of Colonial architecture brings a renewed
interest in the history of that period.
There is no more attractive remodeled farm-
house than that of Mr. Roland C. Lincoln, which
is a charming, rambling, summer home situated
on the Gloucester road half way between Man-
chester-by-the-Sea and Magnolia. It is a low,
yellow cottage, picturesquely placed against a
background of trees and nestled on the side of a
hill seemingly as if it had been there for centuries.
At the front is the ocean, while surrounding it
is well-placed shrubbery and artistically trained
The grounds are just at the left of the main
road and separated from it by a low stone wall ;
the entrance is by a driveway at one side that
winds to an entrance porch. All around the
house are carefully trimmed lawns and gardens
gay with flowers, while the soft expanse of green
sward extends to the shadowing trees and the
background of forest and rock. The house was
built two hundred and fifteen years ago. At
that time it stood on the road and was overshad-
owed by the very oldest house there was in the
town, which stood on the crest of an adjoining
hill. It then contained four rooms only, each
one of which was thirteen and a half feet square.
Surrounding the old farmhouse was an orchard
of apple-trees that even in the early days gave to
it its present name of Little Orchard.
The possibilities of the little cottage, as it
stood forlorn by the side of the road, attracted
the attention of the present owner, who purchased
it, moved it back from the road to its present
location, and remodeled it, adding a wing at the
left. The old front door was improved by the
addition of a semicircular porch which is an exact
reproduction of the porch on the White house at
Salem, Massachusetts. The side porch was unique
and most picturesque in its design. Ivy has
been trained to cover the veranda and outline
many of the windows.
At the rear, facing the garden with its frontage
of gnarled apple-trees, we find the veranda or
out-of-doors living-room. This is used during
the summer months and commands one of the
most picturesque views on the estate, overlooking
lawns and forest.
Entrance to the old house is through the porch,
and one finds himself in a most charming hall-
way, at one side of which is an alcoved recess.
This is hung in blue and white Morris paper.
Near the front door at the right is the staircase
which leads with low treads and broad landing
to the second-story floor; it has a hand-carved
balustrade with a mahogany rail, while its newel
post shows fine carving. Half way up between
two huge beams have been placed some wonderful
old pieces of china of the Colonial period, and
under them is the quaint inscription, a welcome
to the home, "In God's hands stands this house,
may good luck come to it and bad luck go out of
it." The staircase is reproduced from a partic-
ularly fine model found in a house in Boston that
was originally the home of one of America's
greatest statesmen, Edward Everett. It fits into
its new surroundings as if it had always been
there and is exactly the type one would expect
to find in such a house as this. There is a fine old
cabinet near the staircase that is considered one
of the best pieces in the country. Inside is an
entire tea-set of Lowestoft originally brought to
Manchester by one of the old sea captains as a
commercial venture and placed on sale. It was
purchased by the present owner and holds a
prominent place in her collection.
At the foot of the stairs, inside the front door,
the name of the house has been done in burnt
wood. Mrs. Lincoln arranged to have this exe-
cuted while she was traveling abroad and when
talking with the workman she told him the story
of her remodeled farmhouse and why it was
named Little Orchard. He was very much inter-
ested in her description, and when the inscription
was finished, it bore not only the name, but decor-
ations in each corner of tiny little apples.
At the end of the entrance hall is the dining-
room which is long and well lighted by many
windows on two sides. This was a part of the
original house, enlarged and added to. Here
we find the low stud and the beamed ceiling so
prevalent in houses of that day. It is hung with
a most interesting Morris paper done in pink
and blue, and at one end is a recessed sideboard.
The Entrance Porch
The Dining Room
The upper part of this is used as a china cup-
board, while on either side bookcases have been
inserted. The furnishing of this room is all of
the Colonial period; the chairs are Sheraton,
as is also the sideboard. The fireplace is unusually
good, being handsomely carved with a basket
of fruit as the central decoration.
Opening from the dining-room is the living-
room, a large, square room with beamed ceiling,
a feature being a built-in bookcase at the farther
end. On the walls are many original paintings
including one by the late William H. Hunt,
"Tired of Work." An interesting inglenook is
a space-saving device that has been introduced.
Underneath the window-seat, studded in brass
nails, is the name of the house again, Little
The reception-room is back of the living-room
and shows the staircase of old Colonial design
at the farther end. The fireplace was taken
from a house which once sheltered General Lafay-
ette. When the house was torn down, the beauty
of the carving and the graceful design attracted
the attention of the present owner, who purchased
it for his remodeled house. When it was brought
home, it was found to be almost impracticable,
through being so badly worm-eaten; under the
hands of skilful workmen, however, it has been
thoroughly renovated and is now a prominent
feature of the room. The apartment is well
lighted by many windows, each one of which is of
a different design. These have been perfectly
planned, and there is no discordant note.
The second story has been so arranged that all
the rooms open into each other and also into the
hallway. They are of low stud and contain
dormer windows. The Colonial atmosphere has
been carefully observed, so that new pieces which
have been introduced fit in harmoniously with
the old ones. Each room has a large, open fire-
place with a crane, suggestive of good cheer.
The success of this house has been attained
through the careful thought of the owners, and
it is an example of a charmingly remodeled farm-
house of a type such as one seldom finds.
SHOULD you chance to run across an old farm-
house that shows good interior woodwork, do not
carelessly pass it by, for such houses are not easy
to discover. You must realize that when restored
it will be much more attractive than one with a
plain mopboard and narrow cornice.
Woodwork was not of the Colonial type in the
earliest houses; it was used merely as a wall
covering and was called wainscot, the same as it
is to-day. This was because the paneling was
originally made from wainscot oak which was
well grained and without knots. Differing from
that in nineteenth-century houses, it was put on
the walls vertically, the boards being rough and
wide. It must be remembered that in those
days trees had not been felled to any extent, and
the giants of the forest provided the best of lum-
ber for this purpose. These boards were either
lapped or put together with tongue-strips. Later
on, we find interiors where they were laid hori-
zontally, like those of a century or more ago, and
instead of being plain boards, were well finished.
Wainscot is an inheritance from our early ances-
tors, for in the manor houses in the mother country
there is wonderful woodwork, used not only for
wainscot, but for other parts of the interior finish.
White pine, which at that time grew abundantly in
our native woods, was employed for interior as
well as exterior purposes, this being more especially
true in the northern and eastern parts of the
country, where it was more plentiful. It has
generally been conceded that this wood was the
best on account of its wearing properties, and as
it did not show figure in either the grain or mark-
ings. It was often called "cheese-like" and for
this reason was preferred by wood-carvers and
cabinetmakers for their art.
The wainscot was used until about the time of
the Revolution and not until a later period were
the walls plastered. It has never lost its popu-
larity and is found in many twentieth-cen-
tury houses. It is generally shown in paneled
effects which came into vogue much later than
the plain board period. This woodwork was
generally in the lower story, where more time
and thought were given to interior '. finish ; very
rarely is it found in the chambers and then only
in the better class of houses. Wainscot is not
the only interior woodwork used; we often find
whole walls finished in paneled wood, and fire-
places with a simple frame in paneled effects.
Many of these old fireplaces showed a wooden
shelf only, while later on, in the early part of the
nineteenth century, fine carvings were included.
Occasionally we run across a mantel of this kind
in an old farmhouse, but it is very rare.
It would be out of place for the house owner to
introduce a mantel of this kind, no matter how
attractive, in some types of old farmhouses. It
would not be in keeping with the style and, while
handsome and graceful in design, would be incon-
gruous even in remodeled surroundings.
Door-frames as well as the wainscot betoken
the age of the house, for in the earlier ones doors
are perfectly plain in finish, elaboration in design
of paneling and wood-carving coming into play
at a little later period. Cornices widened and
also became more elaborate as house building
progressed, and a century after the first wainscot
was used, we find them sometimes several inches
in width and showing different motives, such as
the egg and dart. These also are rarely found in
an old farmhouse, for it must be remembered
that our early ancestors had little time to think
out elaboration in the interior finish of their
homes which were built solely as shelters.
In the reproductions of to-day the wide boards are
not easy to find, unless they are taken from some
old house. One of the most valuable boards is the
pumpkin pine which is now rarely found, having
disappeared from the New England forest long
ago. Fortunate is the house owner who dis-
covers this wood in his old farmhouse, for it is
found only in the very oldest buildings. The
softness of the wood and the great width of the
boards distinguish it from the white pine.
In 1695, on the shores of Cape Cod, not far
from Cataumet, a small farmhouse was built, with
four rooms down-stairs and two rooms and an
unfinished attic above. It was the home of one
of the early settlers and stood facing the highway,
a simple, unpretentious dwelling of no particular
design and incongruous architecture. Although
it had been substantially built, it had been aban-
doned for many years and was in a most dilapi-
dated condition. Originally the water came nearly
to its door, but the shore line gradually had re-
ceded, so when first discovered, the little building
The Front View
stood with its back to the road, and its face to
the bare meadows.
Like other houses of this early period, it was
guiltless of paint, and its weather-beaten sides
showed the wear and exposure of many years'
conflict with the elements. To transform this
house into a summer home equipped with ac-
commodations adequate for a modern family,
was a difficult problem. The proportions of the
exterior were good but so simple that in order
to extend the original quaint outline of the house
without marring it, the additions had to be made
with unusual care.
The first step was to carefully study the period for
correct remodeling and to lay out the five acres of
grounds to balance the house and preserve symme-
try of detail. A driveway starts at the entrance,
where on a high pole swings a shield-like sign with
a red background and showing the name of the
house, Willowdale, in white. The estate is defined
by a fence, and the house in its remodeled state
is attractively located on rising land, many feet
back from the main highway.
A hundred years after the house was built, a
new highway was opened at the rear; thus the
front or south side was wholly screened from
observation, and it was here that the new owner
decided to lay out his garden. It is enclosed
by a high fence painted white, with latticed
panels stained green; at the end a summer-
house was erected, whose axis is the central path
of flat stepping-stones that leads to the quaint
porch entrance. Its three outer sides extend
beyond the fence and command a broad view of
the picturesque shore territory. The garden
proper is of the old-fashioned type, in conformity
with the old-time atmosphere of the estate, and
the same sorts of flowers thrive in the trim beds
that bloomed no doubt in the first owner's garden.
Trailing vines conceal the fence outlining this
plot from view. The only distinctive modern
touch and yet one quite in harmony with the
quaintness of the grounds is a large crystal gazing-
bowl. This reflects in its luminous surface the
nodding heads of the flowers, the floating clouds,
the children dashing past, or the still loveliness
of the summer sunset which preludes the night.
The original house had been substantially built,
and while appearing dilapidated, few of the shin-
gles needed replacing even after two hundred years'
wear. In the interior comparatively few repairs
were necessary, paint and paper being the prin-
cipal requisites. Additions had to be made to
secure the needed room, and the first problem
was to arrange these to conform with the original
quaint outline. The old part was of the old farm-
house type, low of build. To the right a wing
was built to contain three bedrooms and a bath-
room, and to balance this a broad, covered ve-
randa was added at the left ; behind this, at the
rear, quarters for the kitchen, servants' hall, and
chambers were thrown out. There was need
of more light for the second-floor rooms in the
old building, so dormers were inserted in the deep
pitched roof at the front.
The exterior was then painted dark red with a
white trim, following the style of the first painted
houses. Whether the red was used for economy's
sake or not is a question, but it probably was,
and proved most appropriate. Yellow was the
next coloring used, which is shown by the fact
that it is sometimes found with red underneath;
the white paint came into vogue still later.
Over the front door a small porch was built
which was in strict keeping with the period. Trel-
lises were erected at one side of the house for
rambler roses and vines that would break the
plain, solid effect of the shingled surface. An
old-fashioned well was boxed in, at the rear of
the kitchen entrance, and furnishes drinking-
water for the family. The old chimney was
retained, so that the fireplaces could be used.
When the house was first built, there were two
rooms at the front and at the rear a kitchen,
kitchen-bedroom, and a dairy. The three small
rooms were thrown into one large room which is
now used as a dining-room. When the plaster
was scraped off from the ceiling, it was found
that there were hand-hewn beams underneath
in such a good state of preservation that they
were left uncovered, giving to the new apart-
ment a distinctive touch. It was then discovered
that the house had been built around a tree, for
a substantial oak, with its roots deep in the
ground and its large trunk still shouldering the
roof beam, was disclosed. Underneath the old
paper was found fine wood paneling which was
scraped and painted white; next the fireplace
was opened, and proved to be eight feet wide with
a swinging crane at the back. This was restored
to its original size, and a square, brick hearth
was laid. The old floors were replaced by new
ones, and the entire room was given the tone of
the period. Rag rugs are laid on the floor, and
A Rear View
The Living Room
Two of the Chambers
all the furniture represents seventeenth-century
pieces. At one end of the room is the dining-
table, and at the farther side, large French windows
hung with chintz open on to a vine-clad veranda.
The parlor, which opened from the dining-room,
was covered with many layers of dirty wall-paper.
When these were removed, it was discovered that
there was a very fine wainscoting. In one corner
was a three-cornered cupboard with a paneled
door underneath. The fireplace was opened up,
and when the room was painted it developed
into one of the most charming rooms in the house.
The paneling was painted just off the white, and
the walls were hung with soft, gray paper with
tiny pink flowers, making the color scheme of the
room gray and pink. This was carried out in
all the furnishings, the chintz used for cushions
and the hangings harmonizing with these tones.
Instead of having all the furniture of the Colonial
period, comfortable willow chairs were introduced,
in order to give the light, airy touch that makes
a summer home distinctive. This is a large,
livable room, well-lighted by many windows and
looking out upon the lawn and the garden.
The hallway is of the plain, simple type which
was so common in the oldest houses. The walls
are covered with a reproduction of an old-time
landscape paper, and the passage forms the divi-
sion line between the old sitting-room and the
dining-room. This dining-room is now used as
a chamber; it is large and sunny with a wide-
open fireplace. It is furnished with an Empire
bed and shows everything that would have been
found in the early days in a chamber of this kind,
even to the spirit lamp that stands on the high
mantel, the warming-pan beside the generous
fireplace, the oval mirror, and the wooden cradle
with its hand-woven blanket, where now sleeps
a twentieth-century baby.
On the second story the rooms have been re-
modeled and show the same good taste which
prevails all through the house. The unfinished
attic has been plastered, papered, and converted
into two bedrooms which are equipped with the
old-time furnishings and are used primarily as
guest rooms. % The gable windows make them
light and airy and at the same time afford a
charming glimpse of the garden, heavy with the
fragrance of the sweet-smelling blossoms, much
as it was two centuries ago.
Willowdale is one of the most comfortable and
well appointed of the many remodeled houses
that are found in New England. It is the posses-
sion of such a quantity of fine old woodwork that
has given the house its distinctive atmosphere,
though this has been preserved and heightened
by the good taste of the present residents, who
have succeeded in making it a most livable dwell-
ing. Every room is well lighted and well venti-
lated, yet the house maintains in its renovated
state all the quaintness and charm of a seventeenth-
century home. It is a fine example of how an
old house can be remodeled with little trouble
and expense, and how the old and new can be
THE GEORGE E. BARNARD ESTATE
IN remodeling a farmhouse, one should plan
to build wide verandas, overlooking pleasing
views. These can be glass-enclosed, so that
during inclement weather one need not stay in-
doors. Outdoor life is a part of the essentials
in planning a summer home, and it means so
much to the house owner that every possible means
should be devised to secure it. With this object
in view, why not lay out around the house attrac-
tive flower beds ? Just a plain lawn does not mean
much, but planted with trees, effective shrubbery,
and well-planned gardens, it furnishes an induce-
ment to sit on the porch and watch the ever
In attempting this work, plan for vistas, well-
selected spaces through which one can get glimpses
of the world beyond. Have an objective point
in view, so that the beauty of the setting sun and
the clouds clothed in rainbow hues make it more
attractive. Panorama effects are always inter-
The Front of the House
THE GEORGE E. BARNARD HOUSE
THE GEORGE E. BARNARD ESTATE
esting and are obtained through judicious planting,
for one must remember that a plain level lawn in
itself has few features that attract. Let the
units be carefully spaced, and if there are walks
or drives near the house, lay them out where they
will not detract from the picturesque effect that
you desire. An exception can be made with
the English or flag treads, which make a charm-
ing adjunct to the grounds when grass grown.
In the early days, the first settlers had their
flower beds close to the house, probably because
they did not then interfere with garden space.
The effect was pleasing, for it added to the simple
attraction of the early building. It is a good
plan, after remodeling a house, to carry out this
scheme of our forebears and have a narrow bed
following the line of the house. Trees also are
always effective; they break the roof line and
shut off objectionable views. If you have no
trees, by all means plant some. Screens can be
devised by planting shrubbery, which makes un-
necessary a latticed enclosure and is all the more
interesting if the shrubs bear flowers, adding
a bright spot to the color scheme. They are
very practical as well, since they serve many
purposes besides shutting off objectionable por-
tions of the grounds. If rightly planted, they
serve as windbreaks and can be arranged to
frame a vista. While evergreen is often used
for this scheme, yet shrubs such as the lilac,
forsythia, bridal wreath, flowering almond, and
many others are suitable. Plant these so that
there will be a continuation in bloom, and also
with reference to a definite color scheme.
A remodeled farmhouse set back from the road
without any surrounding decoration of garden
or hedge cannot be picturesque, for merely a
stretch of green lawn leaves it bare and unin-
viting, no matter how much you cover the house
with vines. The composition of house and garden
should be carefully planned, all the more if the
estate is extensive, with plenty of land that can
be used for this purpose. It is not much trouble
to plant shrubs, and they need little cultivation.
In the woods near at hand you can usually find
plenty that will serve the purpose, if economy
has to be considered.
In planting the garden there are many things
to be regarded ; one of the most important is the
sequence of bloom. This should be arranged
with a view to color effects, for nowhere will
one's taste be more conspicuous than in the gar-
THE GEORGE E. BARNARD ESTATE
den plot which surrounds the house. There is
no doubt that the harmony of color is a vital
question, and complementary ones should be
grouped together. Yellow should never be left
out of the garden unless one wishes a very quiet
effect; red is a favorite color and contrasts well
with white. It must be remembered that quiet
colors can be used in greater profusion than
glaring ones; and if the exterior of the house is
white, it permits one a much wider latitude in
the choice of colors and in the arrangement of
The combination of house and garden that is
found on the George E. Barnard estate of Ipswich,
Massachusetts, is ideal and the result of many
years of careful thought. The house was origi-
nally a small and unattractive farmhouse which
contained only four rooms; it was dilapidated
and forlorn in appearance and situated in the
midst of uncultivated grounds. It was the loca-
tion which attracted the present owner, for he saw
here great possibilities for development; so he
purchased the estate with a view of surrounding
the house with gardens.
The house has been added to, a little at a time,
by throwing out here a room and there a veranda,
instead of completing the whole work at once.
Vine-covered verandas now surround three sides
of the house ; the shrubbery has been well planted.
From the time the garden was first started,
it was the desire of the owner to paint in flowers
what other people have painted on canvas. Steep
hills that obstructed the view at the side of the
house have been converted into gentle slopes;
bare spots have been thickly planted, and colors
have been combined so that there is no inharmoni-
ous note in the finished garden. Careful planning
eliminated straight lines, but not even the slightest
curve in a flower bed was made until after due
consideration. The flowers were planted to fulfill,
as near as possible, the scheme of a landscape
picture, and each plant not in perfect harmony was
removed. The effect as one sits on the veranda
is like looking at an immense canvas, where the
pictures change with every move, for the estate
is a masterpiece of color and bloom, depicting
a different phase of landscape on every side.
In remodeling the house, so many changes
have been made that it is almost impossible
to tell the manner in which the improvements
were effected. There is not a room in the
house but has been thoroughly changed, nor one
THE GEORGE E. BARNARD ESTATE
that has not been enlarged. The service quarters
are all new; they have been placed in the rear,
where they do not intrude on the scheme that
has been carried out in remodeling that of
making an attractive house in keeping with the
setting of the grounds. The main house is at
the front and has been kept in practically the
same general style as when purchased. The
entire rear portion of the house has been added
a little at a time, until now it is most complete in
each and every detail.
Dormer windows have been let into the roof
in order to give better lighting, and the wide
verandas have been railed in, to provide an up-
stairs living-room, from which one gets the best
views of the garden. The lower veranda is fur-
nished with well-chosen willow furniture, each
piece being carefully selected so that there are
no two alike. It has been given a setting of
ornamental bay-trees in green tubs and huge
pottery vases filled with masses of bloom. The
most attractive part of the veranda is at one
side of the house, where it is paved with brick
and lined on the one side with evergreen trees
and on the other with scarlet geraniums.
The hall or morning-room was a part of the
original house. It is entered directly from the
veranda and has been so treated as to present
a different series of pictures from the time one
enters the door until one leaves, each room which
opens out of it being carefully designed for har-
At the left of the room is the staircase which
leads to the second-story floor. The low mahogany
risers and treads contrast with the white balusters
which are topped with a highly polished mahog-
any rail. Doors have been removed so that the
adjoining rooms are glimpsed as one enters from
the veranda. This room is hung with a Colonial
paper showing delicately tinted red flowers against
a gray background, and its beauty is heightened
by the leaded glass windows of the china closet
at the right and the simple fireplace with its brass
accessories. Every bit of furniture here is old
Colonial and is upholstered in green to match
the color of the hangings. A long French window
opens on to the veranda and gives glimpses of the
beautiful gardens. The upper portions of the old
cupboards that were in the house have been glassed
in. The floors have had to be relaid.
Particularly noticeable is the den which is at
the left of the hallway. Here the color scheme
THE GEORGE E. BARNARD HOUSE
The Alcove in the Living Room
THE GEORGE E. BARNARD HOUSE
THE GEORGE E. BARNARD ESTATE
is green, the walls being covered with textile ; the
wainscot is painted white, and the hangings at
the window brighten the plain effect of the wall
treatment. There is no crowding of furniture,
but a dignified atmosphere pervades the entire
room. It is an apartment such as one loves to
find quiet and restful. These two rooms occupy
the entire front of the house.
Opening from the hall is a long reception-room
which was originally a part of the old house and
which shows two rooms thrown into one, with
an addition at the end nearest the avenue. This
is done in old blue velour and is furnished in
mahogany. The plain tint of the wall gives an
admirable background to the fine old pictures
which hang here and there. Every piece of furni-
ture in this room is Colonial. Ionic columns outline
the wide double windows. Light and air have
been carefully considered in the remodeling of
the entire house and have particularly been
sought in designing this room, as is shown by the
many windows on either side. At the farther end,
to one side, a French window leads to a glassed-in
veranda which is used for a breakfast-room.
This room is a feature of the house, for it has
been set in the middle of the terraced grounds
that lie at the side of the house, so that one can
get the full benefit of the picture garden with
the slope of the hill beyond rising to meet the
blue of the horizon.
In the reception-room, as in every room in the
house, wooden doors have been removed and
replaced by glass ones which act as windows to
reveal the room beyond. It is a most unusual
treatment, this picture idea carried out inside
as well as outside of the house, for there is
no spot in the whole interior where you do not
get a vista of some kind.
Beyond the reception-room is the dining-room.
This, too, is a long, narrow room and has been
added since the house was purchased, but so
fitted in that it is seemingly a part of the old house.
This room is divided into a dining and a break-
fast-room and is used during inclement weather.
Heavy draperies make it possible to shut the
rooms off from each other if desired. The entire
end of the breakfast-room has been given up to
groups of long French windows which are repeated
on either side, making a wide bay window. Here
again has the picture effect been carried out, for
the windows act as a frame to the mass of harmoni-
ous blossoms beyond, with their setting of green.
THE GEORGE E. BARNARD ESTATE
The dining-room proper has a paneled Colonial
landscape paper; the furniture is of the Empire
period, while at the farther end of the room have
been let in on either side of the long windows an
attractive china closet. Here, as in every room
in the house, we find wainscot and the same use
of white paint.
At the rear of this dining-room are the service
quarters which consist of a large, sanitary, and
well-equipped kitchen, butlers' pantries, servants'
dining-room and sitting-room. The chambers in
the second story are entirely separate from the rest
of the house.
The second floor shows at the right of the stair-
case a most delightful morning-room which is
large and square with an open fireplace. This
is a particularly attractive room, for it commands
magnificent views. The rest of the house is given
over to chambers which are laid out in suites and
furnished with old-time furniture.
There is an atmosphere about this remodeled
farmhouse that is refreshing and most unusual.
It has taken years to satisfactorily develop the
owner's idea of combining house and garden in
one harmonious color scheme. In the exterior
this is changed each year, the favorite combi-
nation being lavender and white. This is attained
by the use of heliotrope and sweet alyssum which
outline the terraced wall and which show a carpet
of green for central effect. *
The veranda is a harmony of green and white
which is carried out in the awnings, the foliage,
the willow furniture, and the white of the exterior
and the balustrade. In the interior there is not
a jumble of different colorings, and the rooms
have been so arranged that they present a series
of pictures brought about by the use of plain
colors that perfectly blend. This has not been
the work of a day or a year, but of ten years of
careful study and is one of the most instructive
lessons for those who are planning to remodel
an old farmhouse and to introduce into its interior
finish harmonious, restful, color schemes.
The Dining Room
THE GEORGE E. BARNARD HOUSE
THE W. P. ADDEN HOUSE
MANY of the old houses still contain some fine
specimens of old hardware that were used when
they were built, more especially the H and L hinges
and the old latches which have not been removed.
The knockers have often disappeared, being more
conspicuous and therefore eagerly sought, not
only by collectors but by builders of new houses
into which Colonial ideas have been introduced.
If you are looking for this particular feature
in the farmhouse, you will probably find it widely
varied, as the different owners of the house each
had his own special ideas and changed the hard-
ware to suit his tastes. Many did not realize
the importance of these fixtures in retaining the
sixteenth and seventeenth-century interiors.
It is absolutely necessary that the hardware
should correspond in material to period. Too
little thought has been given to this subject and
has led to an incongruous use of hardware, leaving
an impression of lack of information concerning
the correct architectural details of the house.
There is a decided difference between the hard-
ware that was used in the latter part of the six-
teenth century and the early seventeenth and that
we employ to-day. The twentieth-century " build-
ers' hardware" covers a great variety of objects
included in every part of the house. In Colonial
times the term was applied to few, such as latches,
locks, knockers, and hinges, some of which were
very ornamental in design, for they ranged from
small pieces to large ones.
The evolution of this special feature of the house
is of interest to the house builder; it originated
in the Dark Ages, at which period we find used
Romanesque, Renaissance, and Gothic types in
so many different forms that it is little wonder
the architect turns to them for copy. The best
examples are seen in the late sixteenth and
early seventeenth-century houses, when the decora-
tion of the entrance door was a very serious sub-
ject and received great attention, especially dur-
ing the Colonial period. Then the knockers
were of the most importance and were either of
cast-iron or brass. The former were often very
beautiful in design and were used on the earlier
houses, for brass did not come into favor until
THE W. P. ADDEN HOUSE
later. Unfortunately the waning vogue of this
piece of hardware led to many rare pieces being
destroyed or thrown into the melting pot. It is
fortunate that some house owners realized their
worth and that collectors felt they would become
a fad later on and so stored them away, which
accounts for many old knockers found on the
The latch, lock, knob, and hinge are also inter-
esting. The former is made from either iron or
brass but rarely of any other metal. Before the
appearance of the latch, the door-ring was used,
but this it would be most difficult to locate.
The thumb-latch is occasionally fanciful in design
but is generally very plain and is rarely seen even
in old-time houses, having been replaced by the
door-knob. The most common feature, and one
which we are quite apt to discover, is the long
strap-hinge which was designed for a special
purpose, for we must remember that in the early
days wooden pins were used to fasten the door;
and while they kept it compact, yet it demanded
the strap-hinge also for protection. This hinge
will be found in many different patterns and makes,
sometimes running almost the entire width of
the door, and often constructed in three sections,
the upper, lower, and central, although fre-
quently only two were used. The ornamental
ones are rarely if ever seen in farmhouses, being
confined to the wealthier class. The plain iron
ones were more often found, and these are of two
types, the one known as the H hinge and the
other as the H and L.
Closet doors often are equipped with the H
hinge which takes its name from its formation.
Because of the fact that the home builders of
to-day are turning their attention more and more
to the use of decorative hardware, one should
be very careful to retain this feature as an effec-
tive detail in the interior finish of a remodeled
i In the town of Reading, Massachusetts, is a
most attractive remodeled farmhouse that has
been carefully worked out by W. P. Adden with
such a regard for the preservation of old-time
atmosphere that it can be considered as a fine
type to copy. Not only has the exterior been
carefully planned, but the owner has gone farther
and made a special study of the hardware, so that
the house to-day contains many wonderful ex-
amples that are correct in their treatment and
add much to the atmosphere of the home.
THE W. P. ADDEN HOUSE
This old farmhouse was originally a gambrel-
roofed cottage built about 1760 and was probably
a four-roomed house, as is indicated by the parti-
tions filled with brick that were found in the
center of the present house, and also by an old
brick oven and fireplace which were buried up
and covered over by the portion of an old brick
chimney evidently added later. The additions
to this dwelling, even when purchased by the
present owner, had been carefully planned, so
that there were no awkward joinings or incongru-
ous jogs discernible in the outline. There is no
doubt that here, as in other old farmhouses, the
early builders had displayed an inherent sense of
proper proportion, and the additions which were
made from time to time might be said to be after-
expressions of first thoughts.
When this house was first purchased, it was in
an excellent state of preservation, with the excep-
tion of the ell which was past repairing. It faced
directly south and had evidently been set by a
compass regardless of street boundary, though
the location was only a short distance from the
main road. The design of the house contained
all the characteristics of early construction,
the small-paned windows, closely cropped eaves,
and long, unrelieved, roof line. At the time of
the purchase of the estate, which had originally
included hundreds of acres, it was surrounded by
a low wall of field stone which had evidently been
taken from the grounds to make tillage possible.
The house stood on a slope and was surrounded
by grass land ; the same idea is carried out to-day,
in that little attempt has been made at garden
culture, the owner preferring to keep the estate
as near as possible to the farm lands of centuries
After the remodeling was commenced, many
interesting facts of construction were brought to
light. The north side of the house, which was
originally the rear, was changed by the present
owner into the main front, with entrance and
staircase hall. The hall was necessarily small,
and in order to make it practical, five feet of the
large central chimney had to be removed, includ-
ing three fireplaces and two brick ovens. It was
then found that this portion had evidently been
added to the house after the original chimney
had been built, as an old fireplace and brick oven
were found on the line of a partition on the south
side of the hall. It was also discovered that in
all probability the original house had a lean-to
THE W. P. ADDEN HOUSE
at the north which was used for a kitchen, and
that this fireplace and brick oven were a part of
the old room. The original chimney was found
by actual measurement to be sixteen feet by seven
and a half feet, and the stone foundation was the
largest ever seen, being ample enough to accom-
modate the wide hearths as well as the chimney.
In fact, to-day it takes all the central portion of
the basement, leaving two small spaces on either
side. In the remodeling, it was found that the
original work was laid up with clay, meadow clay
being taken as a binder.
The exterior required little alteration, save on
the north side, where it was necessary to remove
a portion of the wall in order to run the hall out
under the roof of the house so that it might be
two stories in height. The front of the house,
which faced directly south, was left unaltered,
with the exception that on the opposite side from
the ell a glass-enclosed piazza was built of like
width, length, and height. This afforded a bal-
last, as it were, to the main building and made a
comfortable playroom for the children.
A new porch, arched with Colonial pillars, was
built at the front of the house in keeping with the
type. In the ell a second one of less formal pro-:
portions was designed which was reached by a
flagging of rough stones. A third porch of en-
tirely different character was a finish to the rear
of the house and shows lattice work, being quite
ornamental in design.
The angle formed by the main building and the
new ell gave space for a flower plot, and here is
located a small rose garden. This is outlined by
broad paths of stone ; surrounding the whole
are wide borders of old-fashioned flowers which
lend a touch of color that is very attractive.
Entering through the front porch, one comes
to a new hall, and with the exception of this, there
has been little change in interior. This hall is
most interesting; here are found the H and L
hinges, a yellow and white Colonial wall-paper,
and a staircase that divides at the landing and by
easy treads leads on either side to chambers
above. An old grandfather's clock is an appro-
priate furnishing for this part of the house. All
through the lower story the old woodwork has
been carefully preserved, and where it was de-
stroyed it has been replaced.
The living-room is practically as it was when
purchased. Here we find the H hinges and the
old-time latches, while through the center of the
THE W. P. ADDEN HOUSE
room runs a beam which had to be cased in and
which has been painted white to match the trim.
At one side a built-in bookcase has followed the
architectural lines so perfectly that it seems as
if it had been there ever since the house was built.
The simple Colonial fireplace shows more orna-
mentation than is generally found in old farm-
houses, which indicates that it was of a better
type dwelling. With its new wall hangings and
white trim, this room is most attractive. It
connects with the sun-parlor at one end and is
well-lighted and most homelike in atmosphere.
The dining-room, facing east, has had a new
group of windows added and contains the largest
fireplace in the house. The china closet above
the fireplace was discovered when the plaster was
removed for the purpose of building in a similar
one. This room is fitted with H and L hinges
and the old-time iron latch. It was originally a
portion of the old kitchen, the remainder of it
being taken for a lavatory and passage-way.
All through the house we find that careful atten-
tion has been paid not only to hardware but to
furnishings. No new-fashioned pieces have been
used in any room in the house, and this careful
attention to details has been carried out even
in the lighting fixtures, which are all of the
The second-story floor has undergone changes
to meet the requirements of the present owner.
One half of this story is devoted to the nursery;
it is equipped with a large fireplace, deep closets,
bath, and nurse's room, while the remainder
provides a large bedroom, bath, and dressing-
room. It has been so arranged that each part is
distinct by itself, and convenience has been looked
after in every particular.
. The original attic was entirely unfinished, and
when new stairs were erected in the second-story
hall, there was great difficulty in finding room
enough to enter the attic by the side of the large
In the remodeling of this house, comfort, a
careful following of Colonial details, and an
especial attention to the hardware are the salient
THE W. P. ADDEN HOUSE
THE KATE DOUGLAS WIGGIN HOUSE
THERE is one thing that should be carefully
considered in buying an old farmhouse, that is,
character. In order to obtain this, distinct points
should be sought after and brought out. These
can be accentuated not only in the house but also
in its surroundings, the garden, the trees, and
the shrubbery; even the defining wall or fence
does its part in making a good or bad impression
on the casual passer-by.
One must remember, in dealing with subjects
of this sort, that the term "farmhouses" is a vary-
ing one. These range from small, insignificant
little dwellings to the more elaborate houses that
were built primarily for comfort as well as shelter.
There are many large, substantial dwellings, not
of the earlier type, for they were erected much
later, but which illustrate the progression of the
farmhouse design. One looks in houses such as
these for larger rooms, higher stud, and more
The fireplaces are smaller and more ornate,
for it must be remembered that as time passed
on, money circulated more freely through the
colonies, allowing for more extensive work and
better finished details. While it is not necessary
to copy the Colonial wall hangings, yet in the older
houses it is much more satisfactory ; still one can
depart from this custom in a more elaborate house
and use his own taste in selecting an attractive
modern paper. Many people consider that houses
restored, no matter of what period, should inva-
riably have carefully consistent interior finish,
without realization that it is sometimes better
to look for character than type.
The old-time wall-papers, more especially the
picturesque ones, were generally used in more
expensive houses, although we find them here and
there in the more simple ones. Often this feature
of the interior decoration is not well carried out,
the wall hangings being chosen for cheapness
rather than merit.
To-day there is on the market such a great
variety of papers that it is a very easy matter to
get one suitable for any certain room and suggest-
ing good taste. Many of them are reproductions
of old motives, while others are plain and simple
THE KATE DOUGLAS WIGGIN HOUSE
in character, giving to the room a quiet effect
and providing a good background for pictures and
hangings. There is nothing more restful in char-
acter than the soft grays ; they are effective as a
setting for stronger colors that can be used in the
curtains, for this part of a room finish is as impor-
tant as the wall hangings themselves. There is
an indescribable charm to a room that has been
carefully planned and shows good taste and rest-
In many houses, some decorative scheme has
been introduced which necessitates a particular
kind of wall hanging, and even though it may be
most unusual in type, it illustrates a motive that
has been in the mind of the owner. Houses would
lack character if the same line of interior deco-
ration were carried out in all of them. With a
high wainscot and cornice painted ivory white,
comparatively little paper is needed, which reduces
the cost and permits a better paper than if the
room had a simple mopboard and a tiny molding.
Papers that are garish and discordant in them-
selves, if skilfully handled, can produce har-
monious effects, for it is often the unusual wall
hangings that attract most. In curtaining these
rooms let the same main tone be reproduced.;
this need not apply to every detail but to the
general tone. Many people are timid in the use
of odd wall-papers or curtains; they are afraid
that they may look bizarre, but they should
remember that color is in reality a very powerful
agent in making an artistic home.
It is sometimes effective to treat a house as a
whole, and then again it is better that each room
should have its own individuality. Very few
houses but have at least one corner that offers
interesting opportunities, and it is the artistic
treatment of this that helps out the harmony of
There is a charming atmosphere surrounding
"Quillcote," the home of Kate Douglas Wiggin,
at Hollis, Maine, where Mrs. Riggs spends three
months of the year. It may be that the quiet-
ness of the place lends to it additional charm,
and then again it may possibly be the result of its
The house itself is typical of the better class of
New England farmhouses, and since it has come
into Mrs. Riggs' possession, many alterations
have been made, until to-day it is one of the most
attractive farmhouses to be found anywhere.
Two stories and a half in height, with a slant
THE KATE DOUGLAS WIGGIN HOUSE
to the roof, it stands back from the road on a
slight elevation, with a surrounding of lawns and
overshadowed by century-old elms. To-day its
weather-beaten sides have been renovated by a
coat of white paint, while the blinds have been
painted green. A touch of picturesqueness has
been secured through the introduction of a window-
box over the porch, bright all through the season
with blossoming flowers. There is no attempt at
floriculture, the owner preferring to maintain the
rural simplicity of a farmhouse devoid of flowers
and only relieved by the shrubbery planted
around the building.
When the house was first purchased, it was
not in a dilapidated condition, having been lived
in by townspeople and kept in good repair. The
work of remodeling has been done by the people
of the village, and it has been superintended by
the owner of the house, in order that her own
ideas, not only in remodeling, but in decorating,
should be exactly carried out. The old shed is
now used as the service department, a wide
veranda having been built at one side for a
servants' outdoor sitting-room. At the rear of
the house is the old barn, which to-day is used for
a study and for entertainment purposes.
Entrance to the house is through a Colonial
door with a fanlight on either side. The owner
has preferred to keep this in its original state,
rather than add a porch of the Colonial type.
The only porch that has been added to the house
is a latticed, circular one at the side door. The
entrance hall is long and narrow, the staircase
also being narrow and built at one side in order
to save space. The Colonial idea has been carried
out here in the wainscot, and the ornamentation
of hand-carving on the stairs shows it was done
by a stair-builder and not by an ordinary me-
chanic. The lighting is from a lantern which
carries out the general effect. The wall-hanging
is in Colonial colors, yellow and white, while
the rugs are the old, woven rag carpets which are
repeated for stair covering. The balusters are
very simple in design, while the balustrade has
been painted white, thus showing it is not of
At the right is the dining-room, a bright, sunny
room that has been uniquely planned to occupy
the front of the house instead of the rear, as is
more usual. It is a large, square room, in which
little or no alteration has been made and which
has been treated so as to make an effective setting
Two Views of the Living Room
THE KATE DOUGLAS WIGGIN HOUSE
to the rare old Colonial furniture. The size of the
dining-room has been considered in reference to the
furniture, this being one reason why Mrs. Riggs
has chosen this large, square room in order to
correctly place her old mahogany pieces. The
decorations are very simple and follow out the idea
of Colonial days, there being no pieces that are
not in actual use. The walls are hung in shades of
yellow and brown, and she has been most successful
in carrying out her color scheme.
The home study, or den, leads from the dining-
room and has been carefully planned with an idea
of restfulness. A chamber at one end has been
converted into an alcove, and additional light is
obtained by cutting a group of casement windows
over the writing-table. The room is very simply
furnished and shows marked originality. The
walls are papered with woodland scenes, for it
was a fad of the occupant to bring into the house
by wall hangings suggestions of the outside world.
While it is unique, it has a distinctly restful influ-
ence and is in tone with the fireplace, which has
been decorated with unusual features and which
bears the name "Quillcote." The draperies in
this room are original in treatment, being deco-
rated to order by a noted artist who has intro-
duced his signature in some part of the work.
They are ornamented with original designs sug-
gestive of farm life, with such subjects as wheat,
apples, or corn and are covered with delicate
traceries of rushes or climbing vines. The fire-
place has for andirons black owls, and on either
side stand altar candles. In the furnishing of
the room everything has been chosen with an eye
to restful effects ; the owner has done away with
the pure Colonial idea, using the mission type
and considering comfort more than convention-
Opposite the dining-room at the front of the
house is the living-room, where further originality
is found in furnishings and in scenes from nature
introduced in the unique wall hangings. This
room is in blue and white, the wall-paper being
delft blue with a rush design over which hover
gulls. Singularly enough, the idea is very pleas-
ing. The hangings are of white muslin with blue
overcurtains, while the furniture is a mixture of
Colonial and modern pieces. An inglenook has
been obtained through the introduction of a
built-in window-seat which is covered with blue to
match the tone of the paper. The furniture is
all painted white, and the white fur rugs laid
THE KATE DOUGLAS WIGGIN HOUSE
upon the blue floor covering give a charming
effect. The decoration and furnishing of this
room is quiet and restful, for those two ideas
form the basis of the owner's scheme which she
had in mind long before she took this house and
while she lived in the old family mansion that
stands just across the way. It is a comfortable,
livable room and not used for state occasions
alone, but for everyday needs.
Just beyond is the sitting-room in which an
entirely different idea is presented. Here the
china fad is evidenced in the ornamentation of
priceless old plates that have been collected by
the owner's sister, Miss Nora Smith, and arranged
according to her taste. This room is a typical
Colonial room, and the furniture shown is all of
that period, even to a spinning-wheel which gives
an old-time effect. From this room one passes
through a door on to the rear porch, from which
fine views are obtained of the little, old-fashioned
garden, the pine grove opposite the house, and
the winding road.
The second story shows large, square chambers
which have been carefully planned, each following
out a distinct color scheme. In one of these
rooms there is a combination of lavender, white,
and green, shown in wall hangings, curtains, and
furnishings. The canopied Field bed, with its
lavender and white spread, has been painted white.
Over it has been draped a white muslin canopy.
The walls are in light green and show no pictures
save that of a Madonna and Child, suggestive of
the author's love of children. On the mantel
are several very rare pieces of Staffordshire, many
of which can not be duplicated. The furniture
has been painted white, with the exception of two
chairs which have been treated to a coat of green.
Another room, showing wainscot and a quiet
yellow and white Colonial paper, has a Field bed
with white spread and white muslin canopy.
Here the Colonial idea in furnishing has been
strictly carried out.
, An original and yet artistic room has its walls
entirely covered with a dainty cretonne, the bed-
covering and hangings being of the same material.
The most interesting idea in remodeling is
presented by the old barn, which has been con-
verted into a large music-room or hall, with a
rustic platform at one end. Here a new floor
has been laid, many windows inserted, and a few
old-time settles placed, constructed of weathered
wood toned by time to an almost silvery hue.
The Dining Room
Two of the Chambers
THE KATE DOUGLAS WIGGIN HOUSE
Nothing else has been changed ; the ancient rafters
and walls remain as they were a century ago.
The hall is lighted by many lanterns hanging from
ceiling and harness pegs, also by curious Japanese
lanterns painted especially for Mrs. Wiggin and
bearing the name of the artist. The lanterns,
hung from overhead, greatly relieve the somber
effect of the heavy beams. At the rear of the
hall a broad door space makes a frame for a pretty
picture, a field of buttercups and daisies, a dis-
tant house, and two arching elms. A large closet,
once the harness-room, is fitted up with shelves
and contains all the necessary china for a "spread"
such as is given to the village folk several times a
year, when dances are held in the old barn.
THE FRANKLIN BRETT HOUSE
FLOORS are an important detail in the remodeled
house. Sometimes the original building has many
that are in fairly good condition so that they
can be saved. There is a great advantage in keep-
ing these old floors if possible, for they were made
with plain edge, of strong timber and laid close
together. The earliest floors were not double in
treatment, therefore the edges had to be either
lapped or rabbited.
|i These wide boards that were used in the early
construction stand the test of furnaces and modern
heating a great deal better than do modern ones
of the same width. The latter are much more
apt to shrink and open joints. It will be found
that the better floors are in the second story in
almost every house.
It is probable, however, that if you are remodel-
ing your house, you will have to lay at least one
or more floors, and in such cases, matched hem-
lock is the most advisable for the under floor;
THE FRANKLIN BRETT HOUSE
but the boards should be laid diagonally and close
together. The usual method is to lay them match-
ing the upper floor. It is a great mistake, even
if advised to do so by an architect, to lay only
one floor, for with shrinkage come cracks through
which cold air and dust can rise; even a carpet
does not remedy the trouble.
Hardwood boards make the most popular floors
and come in varying thicknesses, the oak being
generally three eighths of an inch jjiick and the
North Carolina pine averaging seven eighths of
an inch. Both are employed for new floors and
for re-covering old, soft-wood ones. The narrow
width of oak is more satisfactory, as the narrower
the stock the smaller the space between the strips
and the less danger of unsightly appearance.
They may be a little more expensive than the
wider ones, but they make a much better showing.
Then, too, the shading and figure blend more
harmoniously than when the broader strips are
Narrow widths also obviate any danger of the
flooring strips cupping, as they are laid and stay
absolutely flat. One should be careful not to
lay oak flooring while the walls and plaster are
damp ; in fact, if you have to do much remodel-
ing, the floor should be the last thing attended
to, as it is a better plan to get everything else
done and thoroughly dried even to painting,
wall hangings, and decorating. K , ,-
Hard pine is best for the kitchen, as it does
not splinter, is more reasonable in price, and has
fine wearing qualities. It must be taken into
consideration that oak flooring is cheaper in the
end than carpet. A yard of carpet is twenty-
seven inches wide by three feet in length and con-
tains six and three quarters square feet. Clear
quartered-oak flooring can be bought, laid, and
polished for one dollar per carpet yard, and when
you consider the lasting qualities of the wood and
the beauty of a polished floor, you will make no
mistake to put in one of the better quality, more
sanitary, and the best background for rugs, in-
stead of laying a floor of cheap wood.
Carpets, with the exception of straw matting,
are inadvisable for a home like this. They are
unsanitary, hold the dust, and are not nearly as
attractive as rugs. These may vary in price with
the purse of the owner, and can range from Orien-
tal rugs, costing hundreds of dollars, to the simple
rag rug which is always appropriate and in good
THE FRANKLIN BRETT HOUSE
The absolute carrying out of the Colonial idea
is not necessary, for it would not be appropriate
to have old-fashioned rag mats in every room of
the house. They can be used, however, in the
dining-room or in the chambers, and to-day the
woven rag carpets and mats are so attractive in
their weave and so lasting that they are satisfac-
tory adjuncts to the house furnishings. In the
parlor and living-room, while they can be used if
desired, there are so many attractive low-priced
rugs, both Oriental and domestic, that it is an
easy matter to get something both suitable and
in good taste.
This attention to floors and their covering is
nowhere better shown than in the Franklin Brett
House at North Duxbury, Massachusetts. This
house, which is over two hundred and fifty years
old, was put up at auction several years ago, at
just the time when the present owner was looking
for an old farmhouse to remodel. It was a double
house that had been occupied by two families.
The frame, excepting certain parts of the first
floor joints and also portions of the sills, was in very
good condition, but the first-floor boarding was
badly worn and was not fit to be retained for use.
It was replaced by a new one of narrow boards.
The second story, however, was in much better
condition, and the floors, with the exception of
the one in the bathroom, could all be used. The
house was particularly ugly, displaying a combi-
nation of bright yellow paint and dark red trim,
and the exterior was wholly devoid of any artistic
At the front of the house there was a wide porch,
just a simple flooring and two doors that stood
side by side. The old place was so forlorn that
it was bid in during the excitement of the auction
partly out of sympathy. It showed so little
possibilities that at first the owner was doubtful
whether it had been a good purchase, for the build-
ing did not in any way fit his ideal of what was
desired in order to make a suitable summer home.
After careful examination, however, various
possibilities were discovered indicating that there
was a very good chance to make it attractive.
Originally the house was built for one family only ;
in architecture it was square-framed, containing
two stories and an attic, with ells at the rear and
one side and a deep, sloping roof broken by two
chimneys. In the old house there were nine rooms
on the first floor and five rooms and a hallway
on the second. Some of these on the first floor
THE FRANKLIN BRETT HOUSE
THE FRANKLIN BRETT HOUSE
have been combined by removing partitions to
make a living-room and dining-room, together
with a hallway.
In the living-room were found some hand-hewn,
second-floor joists, and it was decided to leave
these exposed and plaster in between them,
instead of bringing the ceiling down to its origi-
nal level. In practically every room the plaster
was in good condition and needed only to be
treated in places. The chimneys were touched
up wherever needed, but on the whole very few
repairs were necessary. In the lower story to-day
there are four rooms and a good-sized hall, while
the second story is divided into six rooms and
a bathroom. Five additional windows were added
down-stairs and two in the second story, in order
to secure proper light. Very little new material
was put into the house, the work consisting chiefly
of tearing out old material and patching woodwork
and plaster. At the rear of the house, on a line
with the larger ell, the smaller kitchen ell
having been torn down, a rustic pergola was
constructed and a covered veranda, over which
grape-vines were trained for shade. The roof
was partially reshingled, and the house was
painted light gray with white trim, with green for
the blinds. At the front a Colonial porch was
added with latticed sides and a settle, which is in
direct keeping with the architecture of the house.
In its remodeled condition, with its setting of
closely cropped lawn, it bears little resemblance
to the ugly farmhouse of a few years ago.
There was no plumbing in the old house, so a
single bathroom was put in, a hot- water boiler
was added in the kitchen, and a hot-air engine
and pump were installed in the cellar which
furnish water under pressure from a thousand-
gallon supply tank. Later on, a hot-water heater
was installed, so that with the modern improve-
ments the house was made very comfortable for
habitation all the year round if desired.
The original parlor on the left has been utilized
for a morning-room; the bedroom, dining-room,
and pantry have been combined into a living-
room. The partitions between the old hallways
have been removed, converting them into one
good-sized hall. The remaining portion of the
old dining-room has been made into a large pantry.
The kitchen in the main ell has been left practi-
cally unchanged as to size and shape, although
the shed opening from it, as well as the kitchen
itself, have been entirely renovated and equipped
THE FRANKLIN BRETT HOUSE
with up-to-date improvements. Paint and paper
and rugs have effected an interior transformation
that is most attractive. There are no doors in the
house, wide openings making it appear as though
it were one large room.
The hallway is entered from the Colonial porch
and is unique because of its spaciousness. The
stairs are at the further end, opposite the door.
The Colonial atmosphere has been maintained in
the wall hangings, the braided rag mats, and the
At the left of the hall is the morning-room
with its wide, open fireplace, its Colonial paper,
and Oriental rugs which are in color tones to
correspond with the paper. ; i
Opening from this room is the living-room,
where the same kind of rugs are laid on the hard-
wood floor. In this room, after the house was
purchased, a fireplace was discovered hidden
away behind the partition. It was opened up
and restored to its original size. At one side a
closet was glassed in, while in either corner cosy,
built-in settles give an inglenook effect that is
very interesting. The furnishings are wholly
Colonial and in keeping with the general character
of the apartment. Here the low stud, the beamed
ceiling, the depth and lightness of the room, are
most attractive. From the long French window
one steps out on grass land which commands a
most attractive vista of shrubbery and trees.
In the planting around the house, great care
has been taken to secure shade and picturesque-
ness, so that in its new life the remodeled farm-
house is surrounded by charming effects.
On the opposite side of the hallway one enters
the long dining-room. It is finished in red and
white, with one-toned hangings; at the farther
end is a quaint corner cupboard; a handsome
fireplace has been introduced at one side. Many
of the pieces in this room are very rare, especially
the Hepplewhite sideboard, the chair-table that
was once owned by Governor Bradford, and the
rush-bottomed chairs. Long glass windows open
on the side veranda and combine with attractively
grouped windows to make this room light and
Opening out of this is the pantry, conveniently
equipped with cupboards and shelves, and be-
yond is the kitchen and shed which have been
made entirely modern in their appointments.
The chambers up-stairs are large, square, and
fitted up with furniture of the period. In taking
THE FRANKLIN BRETT HOUSE
A First-floor Vista
The Living Room
THE FRANKLIN BRETT HOUSE
THE FRANKLIN BRETT HOUSE
a "secret" cupboard out of a closet, there was
discovered some paneling that had been plastered
and papered over. On removing the plaster, it
was found that the whole side of the room was
paneled. By the restoration of this old-time
finish, the chamber became even more indicative
of the period in which it was built. Here the wall
hangings are all Colonial in design.
Few houses, even among the many that are
being restored, have retained the old-time atmos-
phere throughout as completely as has this farm-
house. Each room has been made comfortable
and given an air of space, and consistency has been
shown in the furnishing, thus securing a result
that is perfectly harmonious and in the best of
taste. By comparing the appearance of the old
house at the time of its purchase with the results
that have been obtained, one realizes how much
thought and care have been put into its every
part. The lines remain the same but have been
extended by the introduction of the pergola at one
side and a porch which are very attractive
features in themselves. The combination of old
and new, correctly treated, has" done much to make
a harmonious whole.
THE GEORGE D. HALL HOUSE
FORTUNATE is he who, on opening up the old
fireplace in the house he intends to remodel, finds
hidden away behind plaster and paper a pair of old
andirons and possibly a shovel and tongs, indispen-
sable furnishings for the fireplace. No old farm-
house but what has in almost every room some
kind of an open hearth, and these are useless for
the burning of wood without fire-dogs or andirons,
as they are commonly known.
To the inexperienced house owner who is look-
ing for economy in his house furnishing, repro-
ductions are tempting, and most attractive sets
of fire-dogs are to be found in almost every store.
In choosing a set, however, one must exercise
judgment. Many of the reproductions are low
in cost but are really merely lengths of brass pip-
ing, showing brass balls that are lacquered and
strung together on invisible wire frames. They
are in reality the cheapest kind of spun-brass
andirons. If one with a knowledge of the weight
THE GEORGE D. HALL HOUSE
of brass handles them, he will realize their flim-
siness, but thousands of people do not recognize
the difference. Poor fireplace accessories such
as these detract greatly from the charm that sur-
rounds a good hearth and mantel.
It is no longer easy to pick up original, cut-
brass andirons at the antique and junk shops,
that is, at a reasonable price. It is in the country
places, old farmhouses, and from people who have
not yet learned to gage their worth, that one can
get a good bargain, bringing often only three or
four dollars a pair, and being of the best material.
In reproduction there are on the market to-day
plenty of good, cast-brass andirons, but they are
expensive and cannot be purchased at less than
seven dollars, ranging from that to a hundred
dollars a pair, while the spun-brass kind may be
purchased for two dollars and a half a pair.
Andirons come in a great many heights, and in
the olden times two sets were used, the one hold-
ing the forestick, and the other the backlog. In
addition to that, in the earliest American houses,
creepers were used ; they were, in reality, of iron,
small enough to be placed between the andirons,
and they helped out in holding the sticks. The
first material used for andirons was iron, and
we find today occasional specimens of this kind,
many of them not particularly graceful, while
others are very ornamental in design. There
are the Hessian andirons which are found either
in plain iron or decorated with bright paint ; these
came into use about 1776 and were used to cari-
cature the British soldiers who were very unpop-
ular in our country.
The most interesting of these old andirons show
unusual shapes, a great many of them having artis-
tic ornamentation; occasionally we find them
with brass tops. It was fitting to use this metal,
on account of the fire frame, which was of cast-
iron as well, and while many of these were of
foreign manufacture, yet not a few were fashioned
by the village blacksmith. In the choice of
andirons, the size of the fireplace should be con-
sidered; the small ones should not have the
steeple tops but small, ball pattern or some other
design that is low enough not to crowd the fire-
place and thus give the impression 'of bad taste.
The large fireplaces need the high andirons, of
which there are so many different kinds. The mod-
ern adaptation of the Colonial has brought these
furnishings into vogue, so that to-day it would be
almost impossible to tell the old from the new.
THE GEORGE D. HALL HOUSE
Shovel and tongs were much used during the
early period, but a poker never accompanied the
set. These appeared after the introduction of
coal and are found among the reproductions on
the market to-day. Another bit of the furnish-
ings is the fender, of which there are many designs,
some being of simple wire painted black with
brass top and balls, while others are entirely of
brass. The warming-pan is an appropriate acces-
sory for this part of the room ; it should be hung
on a peg at one side of the hearth. In addition
to that, we find the bellows, some of which are
most decorative in their design. The proper
selection of this furniture gives an air of refine-
ment to the room.
There is a most attractive farmhouse situated
in Dover, Massachusetts. It is owned by Mr.
George D. Hall, and shows a series of remodelings,
rather than a complete work, for each year an
addition has been made which has bettered the
initial scheme. The original farmhouse, for in-
stance, which was built in 1729,. was a small, un-
pretentious building that was very dilapidated in
condition, but whose situation appealed to its
present owner. It was his desire to obtain an
old house that could be used if need be for an
all-the-year-round home; plenty of land, pictur-
esque views, good landscape effects, and ample
elbow room were what he especially desired.
The house stands back from a winding country
road in one of the most picturesque situations it
would be possible to find. An old stone wall,
built over a century ago by the original owner,
still forms a boundary line to protect the grounds.
Few estates show so many beautiful trees; they
add greatly to the pictorial effect of the place.
Graceful elms with swaying branches are on
every side, while on the opposite side of the road
pine trees are in evidence, and on either side of
the stone wall wild shrubs have been planted.
There has been no attempt at formal arrangement
of the grounds, not even with the garden which
Is at the side of the house. There has been built
simply a picturesque lattice that separates house
from barn and over which have been trained
In 1907 a wing was thrown out to the south,
with an enclosed, tiled porch and a sitting-room
above. A small eyebrow window was placed
in the roof to light the stairway, while the original
porch on the west and south was carefully retained.
Two years later this porch was removed, and a
As Finally Remodeled
The Sun Parlor
LONE TREE FARM
THE GEORGE D. HALL HOUSE
smaller entrance one was substituted. This
showed a brick walk extending from carriage
block to covered loggia at the south. Again in
1914 the eyebrow window was removed, and
dormers inserted in the roof. An open, tiled plat-
form was built outside the enclosed loggia, and a
sleeping-porch was added to the east sitting-room.
A garden and pond were laid out to the south of
the loggia, with a vista framed by two huge elms
that were some thirty feet south of the house.
These improvements have converted the old
farmhouse into one of the most interesting and
beautiful houses that can be found.
Within the last few years the planting and gar-
den effects have been more carefully considered ;
the grounds have been enlarged, and at the left
of the house an old-fashioned garden has been
laid out with a gazing-globe for the central feature.
The name "Lone Tree Farm" was given at the
time of purchase from the fact that a single tree
guarded the house at the front. This tree still
stands but has been enhanced by the careful plant-
ing of shrubbery on either side the driveway,
which has now grown until it has become a par-
tial screen for the lower floor of the farmhouse.
Other trees have been added, and in order to
obtain the seclusion desired, extensive grounds
have been purchased on the opposite side of the
road, so that no neighbors may come near enough
to detract from the quiet.
In remodeling this house, an ell has been added
at the rear for the service department, and a
sun-parlor has been thrown out at one side. This
makes a most attractive living-room in winter
and, with windows removed, a cool sleeping-porch
in the summer. The Colonial porch which has
been added at the front is much more attractive
than the former long veranda which is replaced
by the sun-parlor. In painting the house, white
has been used with green blinds, so that it is in
reality a symphony of green and white, and as it
stands in the center of the lot, surrounded on
three sides by pasture land, gardens, and meadows,
and on the front by hundreds of acres of wood-
land, it is one of the most interesting studies in
house remodeling to be found.
The small hallway is simply an entrance with
narrow, winding staircase that leads by easy
treads to the second-story floor. In 1914, in
ripping out these front stairs to secure the space
above them for a small room, it was discovered
that the old smoke-house, where in olden days
THE GEORGE D. HALL HOUSE
hams were cured, and the back of the bake oven
behind it had not been torn out. The former
consisted of two Gothic arches, the taller of which
was twenty feet in height ; the shape was depend-
ent on the two fireplaces in adjoining rooms.
The smoke-house is about five feet deep and when
discovered was enclosed with an inch of greasy
soot. An oak cross-beam with hand-wrought
nails indicated where the hogs were hung. It
had been left in its natural state after being
cleaned out, and as it looked crude to one entering
the front door, it was shut off with an old, paneled
door, so that the hall, with stairs removed, is now
shaped like six sides of a hexagon, the front door
remaining where it originally was placed.
The living-room, which is at the right of the
hallway, has been made from two rooms. In
this the old woodwork has been carefully retained,
and the walls have been hung with a soft green
that is a fine background for the many pictures
and which brings out the beauty of the white
woodwork. The furniture here does not follow
the Colonial lines, for comfort has been the first
consideration. It is shown in the large, roomy
davenport piled with sofa pillows and the comfort-
able armchair at one side of the open fireplace.
Here the owner has supplied the correct fireplace
accessories, the andirons being low with brass
ball tops, and the shovel and tongs having the
same finish. The mantel, while not elaborate,
shows hand-carving and paneling. Bookcases are
a feature of this room and are found everywhere.
Opening from the living-room is the glass-
enclosed sun-parlor which has been tiled, and in
which is a modern fireplace of bricks laid in white
mortar. Over it Is a bas-relief. The andirons
are high, of modern type, showing fleur-de-lis
design, and are in keeping with the fireplace.
Willow furniture is used in order to give the
sun-parlor a light touch which could not have been
done if the Colonial idea had been carried out.
It is an ideal summer living-room, being sunny
most of the day. Then, too, its location is well
chosen, as it overlooks the old-fashionedjgarden
and commands vistas cut in trees and shrubbery.
The den, used extensively by the owner, is a
typical man's room. Built-in bookcases and
window-seats give it a most livable look, while
pictures of the hunt line the wall, and a hunting
scene is used as a frieze. It is placed in a sunny
part of the house so as to catch as much light as
THE GEORGE D. HALL HOUSE
The dining-room was made from a part of the
old kitchen and strangely enough shows fine
paneling of white pine, which has been carefully
preserved and makes a background for the mantel
ornaments. The mantel shelf is narrow and
extends around the whole fireplace; the old
chimney has been partly built in for modern use,
while the andirons are very unique reproductions.
The old crane has been retained, as have the pot-
hooks and iron kettle, while the old brick oven,
now never used, is a memento of the days when
our grandmothers cooked with great logs of wood,
heating the oven once a week in order to do the
family baking. The furniture is of the Colonial
type, while the rugs are modern but blend with
the scheme color of the room. It is large, well-
lighted by many windows, and divided by an
alcove only from the living-room which adjoins it.
Every room in this house has been carefully
considered with regard to view, and one can stand
at any window and look out upon a different
phase of country life, for trees and shrubbery are
so arranged that the grounds lend themselves
admirably to pictorial effects upon which no
neighboring house intrudes.
Up-stairs in the ell of the house, over the sun-
parlor, is a large sitting-room. It has been so
designed that it faces three different directions
and is lighted by a group of long windows at
one side. In this room the sunlight lays practi-
cally all day, making it a bright, livable room,
where Colonial features have not been considered.
To be sure there are several pieces, such as the
old-time work-table, but modern ideas mainly
have been introduced. On either side of the
cluster of windows are built-in bookcases which
have been painted white to match the trim and
are filled with well-read books. Between these
bookcases is a long window-seat, beneath which
drawers have been built which are very convenient
for holding unfinished work. The hangings are
of muslin with blue over-drapery, harmonizing
with the color scheme of the room. A large, open
fireplace on the opposite side provides for a cheery
wood fire, more especially on stormy days, for this
house is one that is lived in all the year round, so
that heating and lighting had to be taken into
In addition to this room there are three cham-
bers, two bathrooms, and a closet on the floor.
Each one of these chambers has been given a
different treatment. One of the most interesting
The Living Room
A Corner in the Dining Room
LONE TREE FARM
The Sewing Room
LONE TREE FARM
THE GEORGE D. HALL HOUSE
shows fine woodwork in the paneled doors and
also in the small closet that is over the fireplace,
a favorite place for a closet to be introduced in
the early days. The fireplace is not a large one,
and the andirons are small-sized steeple tops.
The bed is an old slat bed, while every piece of
furniture is in keeping with the period.
Take it all in all, one rarely finds a farmhouse
that shows more attractive features than this
one, where comfort, light, and view have all been
carefully considered. It is perfectly available
for an all-the-year-round home, as it is not too
far from the station to allow its occupants to go
back and forth to business every day.
THE WALTER SCOTT HOPKINS HOUSE
WHEN you plan to remodel your house, there is
nothing that should receive much more careful
attention than the closets. It is doubtful, that is,
if the house is of the earliest period, if you will
find many. Our emigrant ancestors did not have
as many clothes or table appointments as we re-
quire to-day. The few of the former they pos-
sessed were hung on pegs or disposed of in chests ;
the dishes were placed on racks, thus eliminating
the necessity for closet room in houses where
every available bit of space was utilized for living
In all probability you will find corner cupboards
which will be more or less elaborate in design.
The best examples show a shell treatment. The
earliest corner cupboards were clumsy affairs,
being movable; later on they were built into the
house and employed to hold family china and
glassware. There was a great variety in these
closets, some being fitted up with shelves only,
THE WALTER SCOTT HOPKINS HOUSE
while others were divided in two, the underneath
part being used for books and odds and ends.
Fortunate is the house owner who finds in his
old house one or more of these old corner cup-
boards. To be sure they can be reproduced ;
but how much better are the originals. Dig out
the old plaster, rip open the sides of the parti-
tions, if you think there is any chance of odd
closets being hidden away between, and remember
that in many old houses there are secret closets,
and it will pay you to tap the wall space to dis-
cover their whereabouts. Sometimes they are
hidden under the flooring, and again the space
between the windows is used for this purpose.
It is always well to open them, for who knows
what valuable heirlooms may be hidden inside.
* There are plenty of spaces where new closets
can be introduced as, for instance, the end of the
dining-room, where a glassed-in china closet with
an arched top and half-domed interior makes an
excellent place to display the old china and glass.
Panels in the wainscot can be utilized, more
especially when they are under the first step of
the staircase. These are most convenient for
filing newspapers or any magazines that are kept
If the hallway is paneled, it is a very easy matter
to put an invisible door into one of the panels.
This can be used for the coat closet, with a low
shelf underneath to hold hats; and on the floor
partitions can be made to hold rubbers. On
each side of the chimney a great deal of waste
space can be converted into bookcases, with little,
leaded, glass doors. Above the mantel, set in the
chimney-breast, will be found spaces which even
in the early days were devoted to closets. They
are cut in a panel and were used to protect china
or old pewter from the dust. Sometimes three
of these closets have been found built into the
fireplaces, all of which were used to hold the house-
In the upper part of the house, under the attic
stairs, can generally be found places that can be
made into linen closets, but it must be remem-
bered that if no ventilation is allowed, cloth will
become yellowed, so by all means have brass
ventilators in the doors. Whatever the purpose
of the closet, its location should be carefully
considered, the shape, the place, and the cost,
so that as many as possible can be introduced.
There is no doubt that the majority of old-time
farmhouses readily adapt themselves to modern
THE WALTER SCOTT HOPKINS HOUSE
requirements and show possibilities that allow of
most attractive development. The result of work-
ing out certain possibilities is shown in the Walter
Scott Hopkins house at Reading, Massachusetts.
It is a long, rambling house that seemed when
first purchased wholly lacking in artistic quali-
ties, and it was not until after careful deliberation
that the owner realized that the old farmhouse, be-
neath its coating of accumulated dust, possessed
a wealth of fine features that were well worth
The house had been used for two families, and
each section was separate and distinct, although
under the same roof. It was built in the latter
part of the eighteenth century and contains fine
woodwork, better than that found in most
houses of that day. All the distinctive features
of the Colonial architecture were evident in this
old farmhouse, where unbroken roof-line, close-
cropped eaves, and small-paned windows were
placed with fc mathematical precision, and the
severely simple exterior was in strict conformity
with the period.
In remodeling the house, the original outlines
were carefully preserved, and the additions were
made to conform. The small, ugly entrances
which had marred the exterior of the house were
torn down and replaced by windows, so that only
a single entrance was left. A very attractive
porch with sloping roof-line was supported by
solid but unornamented columns. In the roof
dormer windows were cut, both at the front and
rear. This was to make the attic practical for
living purposes by affording sufficient light and
air. At one side of the house, in place of the
woodshed, an out-of-door living-room was added,
broad and low of build, with a sloping roof that
harmonized in outline with the main roof. At
the rear a small addition of the deep, bay-window
type was added; this was to secure extra space
for the newly arranged dining-room and the
remodeled kitchen. Two small porches were built
in addition to the new trellised entrance, giving a
simple dignity to the old house, which has been
painted white with green blinds.
The grounds, rough and unkempt, with a stone
wall defining a part of them, were beautified to
afford a fitting environment for the new home,
and to-day smooth sweeps of lawn and judicious
groupings of shrubbery add in no small degree
to the exterior attractiveness of the old home-
Stead. A path of rough, irregular flagstones leads
THE WALTER SCOTT HOPKINS HOUSE
to the main entrance, and a similar path winds
from the street to a gateway in the outlying wall
and opens into a charming garden plot that has
been laid out just beyond the outdoor living-
room. Planting has been judiciously carried out,
and the estate has been brought to a fine state of
cultivation, with the result that it has become an
attractive setting for the remodeled house, which
stands on the slope of a hill.
The interior required a great deal of altering,
including much tearing down of partitions to suit
present-day needs and to make broad, spacious
rooms out of the tiny spaces which sufficed a cen-
tury or more ago. There was installation of plumb-
ing, lighting and heating devices, in order to
meet the demands of modern life, and the New
England attic was made over into servants'
quarters that were sufficiently ample for a large
A leaded glass door that shows fanlight above
opens into a broad, low-ceilinged hall. At one
side is a large fireplace, and a heavy beam crosses
the ceiling. To the right is the new dining-room,
to the left the living-room, and from the end of
the hall opens the den, a passageway connecting
this with the servants' department. In all the
rooms every detail of the old-fashioned construc-
tion has been retained. The fine woodwork
shows the original paneling; the great fireplaces
with their chimney closets have been preserved
intact, and even the old, hand-made hardware
has been retained for present-day use. Cupboards
were discovered, when the coating of plaster and
paper were removed, and are serving the same
purpose in the twentieth-century home that they
did years ago in the Colonial one; and the new
cupboards that have been added seem to fit in as
if they had always been there. The house in its
entirety shows many points that are of unusual
interest. The arrangement of the windows is
particularly good, as are the chimneys, while the
sweeping roof-line at the rear carries out the old
contour and yet has been slightly changed to
afford light and air to chambers inside. The
semblance of the original farmhouse has been
left unaltered, while the really radical changes
have been tempered with a regard for the preser-
vation of the old-time atmosphere.
The living-room shows a typical old farmhouse
room. The woodwork here is particularly good;
there is a wainscot three feet high that comes above
the lower sill of the window frame, and which is
THE WALTER SCOTT HOPKINS HOUSE
paneled in doors and over the mantel. The fire-
place has remained unchanged, being a Colonial
one of huge size. The early period is evidenced
in the absence of a mantel, which brings out the
lines of the wonderful old woodwork to the greatest
advantage. The andirons, instead of following
the sixteenth or seventeenth-century type, repre-
sent griffins. A nightcap closet, introduced in
the middle panel over the fireplace, shows the
original H hinges of iron. When the house was
first purchased, these were hidden away, and only
when the original woodwork was reached were
they discovered, restored, treated to a coat of
white paint, and adapted to present use. This
is a feature that is rarely found in the remodeled
farmhouse of to-day. The walls are hung with a
one-toned paper of soft coloring, while plain
muslin curtains shade the windows. The old
floor was re-laid with narrow boards over which
are laid Daghestan rugs; Mission furniture is
used. The lighting fixtures are of the Colonial
type and placed at the sides only. The room
contains many well-placed windows which give
to it light and air.
The dining-room is at the rear of the living-room
and opens into it, being connected with a wide
opening so that, if need be, the rooms can be used
as one, giving plenty of space for large dinner
parties. Here the woodwork has been restored
to its original charming simplicity and painted
white to match that of the living-room. The
walls have been covered with a dark-toned paper,
and at one end, opposite the living-room, an al-
coved recess has been added in order that its group
of windows may give better lighting to the dining-
room which is exposed to the outside on two sides
only. The floors of this room, too, have been
re-laid and handsomely polished, and are an
effective foil to the domestic rug which is used.
Here, also, the furniture follows the Mission
style, in order to be in keeping with that of the
living-room. The lighting fixtures are of the
same type found in the adjoining room and are
also side lights, considered more effective because
softer than a ceiling light.
In order to let the light in from the hallway,
windows were inserted which follow the early
window casing in their plain style and contain
small panes, there being no elaboration. They
are placed on either side of the entrance door,
which is glassed in the upper portion. Here, as
all through the house, the early style of small-
Two Views of the Dining Room
THE WALTER SCOTT HOPKINS HOUSE
THE WALTER SCOTT HOPKINS HOUSE
paned windows has been retained. There are
many reasons why these are advantageous : not
only do they follow the period in which the house
was built, carrying out details correctly, but when
broken they are more easily replaced, though
much harder to keep clean. These windows are
usually placed near the ceiling, being designed
for light and ornamentation, rather than as
outlooks. The ornamental design which has been
carried out in the arrangement of windows and
door is unusual even in Colonial houses, where
the low stud and the beamed ceiling helped much
This room was originally the kitchen and bed-
room combined; The old fireplace has been pre-
served, as has the brick oven, and over it is a
series of small closets such as are rarely found.
There is a central closet and a smaller one on
either side. Here the H hinges have been retained
and also the old-time latches.
On the opposite side of the hall is the parlor,
which corresponds in size to the living-room and
shows equally fine woodwork. This was origi-
nally the parlor in the farther side of the double
house and has been left practically its original
shape and size, for in this part of the house very
little remodeling has been done. The old fire-
place has been retained at the farther end of the
At the rear of this, what was once the sitting-
room has been converted into an office. Beyond
this room, the original kitchen on that side of
the house and the shed have been thrown into a
most attractive summer room.
In the story above there were formerly two large
bedrooms on either side. These remain practically
as they were and are furnished with Colonial
pieces. The old attic, which originally was used
for clutter, is now remodeled into servants' quar-
ters and by the addition of the dormer windows
has been made into comfortable rooms which
can be kept cool during the warm weather by the
The architects were very wise in remodeling
this house so as to show its extremely simple
lines, for they give it individuality and character
and accentuate certain features that were neces-
sary to create of it a home for one family. There
is no doubt that the alterations have been planned
and executed with rare taste and discrimination.
HENRY w. WRIGHT'S HOUSE
PEOPLE who possess old pieces of furniture
often have very erroneous ideas as to their real
age and call everything "Colonial" for want of
a better name. They assume, that is, if they have
not made a careful study of the subject, that
anything belonging to their great grandmother
must be at least two hundred years old. But,
for instance, sideboards were not made two
hundred years ago, and Chippendale never de-
signed one ; the nearest he came to it was a serv-
ing-table. People get an impression that he
included this piece of furniture in his productions,
but they are wrong in their assumption.
The revival of interest in "antiques" has caused
many an heirloom that has been relegated to
attic or storehouse to be brought out, renovated,
and given a prominent place. Can we assign to
each ancient article an approximate date or maker,
it becomes much more valuable than the daintiest
piece of up-to-date furniture. Worm-holes are a
sign of age and a proof of guarantee, that is, if
the pieces are family possessions. There is so
much cunning workmanship in remodeled furni-
ture that this does not apply to every bit, though
apparently original. It must be remembered
that very few furnishings were brought over by
the colonists, and the early houses were very
The oldest furniture was made of oak; it was
very heavy and showed more or less elaboration
in carving. Chests made at this early period are
often found in families where they have been care-
fully treasured since they were brought over the
sea packed with clothing.
The three leading cabinetmakers were Chippen-
dale, Hepplewhite, and Sheraton. Chippendale
was the earliest but was not appreciated until
after his death. His masterpieces, which com-
bined the Chinese, French, and Dutch models
with ideas originated in his own brain, were so
perfectly constructed that we find them in a fine
state of preservation even to-day.
Lighter and more dainty in character were the
designs of Hepplewhite, who cultivated a freedom
of line such as was adopted by his predecessor,
but who banished the Chippendale heaviness.
HENRY W. WRIGHT'S HOUSE
The Prince of Wales feather was a favorite design
of his. Carved drapery, the belle-flower, and
wheat were often used by him. A distinguish-
ing mark was usually given to the backs of his
chairs, which are either oval, heart, or shield-
shaped. They were finished in japanned work
and often inlaid in light and dark wood. The
legs were generally much more slender than the
Chippendale and often ended in what is known as
Sheraton, who succeeded him, took advantage
of the ideas of his forerunners and revealed a
still more delicate touch, although he retained
many of Hepplewhite's ideas which he strength-
ened and improved. The shield is rarely if ever
found in a chair of his make, which can be dis-
tinguished by its rectangular back and its slen-
der uprights, ranging in number from four to
seven. The legs show a great many different
styles, the best being straight, while carved,
fluted, and twisted ones are also found. The
general trend of fancy in those days was towards
light, elegant designs and showy decorations.
Sheraton indulged his fancy for brilliant coloring
in the most gorgeously painted decorations, com-
bining them with inlay and carving. Next he
introduced white and gold, following the French
style, and still later the brass inlay so fashionable
in Napoleon's day. Caned work was used for
seats and was varied by coverings of needlework,
morocco, striped and variegated horsehair, dam-
asks, and fine printed silks. The curved piece
which Sheraton introduced about 1800 remained
the favorite chair pattern for a century, although
it lost the brass mounts which he at first used.
There is not much danger of confounding the
three great masters, for each produced an entirely
different style of furniture.
After the French Revolution, the furniture
became markedly different in style ; Greek models
were once more popular, and the tripod became
a favorite support. Coarse woods and mahogany
were freely used and were carved and profusely
The Empire furniture which is so popular to-
day was heavy and stiff in its early period, particu-
larly so when of English make, but under Ameri-
can manipulation the beauty of the wood showed
to the best advantage. Yet there is a certain
appeal in its solidity and massiveness. When
the darkened mahogany came into fashion an
opportunity arose for the revival of brass and
HENRY W. WRIGHTS HOUSE
wood that lent charm to the court of the Empress
Josephine. Few good examples of the Empire
style are found in remodeled farmhouses.
Old furniture is most interesting, and if you
intend to furnish your remodeled farmhouse with
it, do not fail to make a careful study of the sub-
ject before attempting it. It covers a wide field
of makers, styles, and decorations, but the modern
home affords ample scope for the employment of
these old pieces, many of which have been brought
down from the attic.
When Salem was in her highest and proudest
days of mercantile prosperity, when her wharves
were bustling scenes of unlading and shipping,
when her harbor was a gathering place of quaintly
rigged vessels, and great East-Indiamen labored
under clouds of canvas, then from the holds of
these cumbersome ships were discharged cargoes
of rich furniture, teakwood, and sandalwood
brought from every land. The wealth of these
incoming treasures has made the quiet city
prominent even until to-day. Here may be found
many old heirlooms, and in the homes of the
descendants of old shipmasters we frequently
find rare pieces. These show to advantage in
various remodeled farmhouses that have been
adopted as all-the-year-round homes by the last
Many fine old pieces are found in the home of
Mr. Henry W. Wright at Danvers, Massachusetts.
Some of them are of exceptional value and rare
examples such as are seldom seen even in the
homes of collectors. The farmhouse itself stands
close to the road, a simple, plain, unostentatious
building, yet showing good lines and careful
treatment. The soft gray of the exterior and the
white trim blend harmoniously with the green of
the grass and the bright-colored flowers of the
little garden. At the front of the house at each
side stand tall elms that cast a grateful shade over
the old farmhouse.
The entrance porch has been made square, its
lattice, designed for the support of vines, taking
away the plain look of the exterior. The win-
dows are well spaced, and the small panes have
been retained. At the side of the house a porch
has been thrown out which can be glassed in as a
living-room or sun-parlor during the winter and
used as an out-of-door veranda during the summer
months. It is so situated that it commands a
picturesque view of the rolling country which is
on every side.
The Living Room
The Dining Room
THE HENRY W. WRIGHT HOUSE
HENRY W. WRIGHT'S HOUSE
The big chimney, that was formerly the central
feature of the house, has given way to two smaller
ones, one on either end. The sloping roof has
been treated to new shingles, while the exterior
has been left practically as it was when built.
The addition of green blinds has done much to
soften what would otherwise be a rather bare
exterior. The house is of the type that shows
four rooms in each story.
The hallway has a castellated paper in gray and
white and a winding staircase with box stairs and
simple balusters and posts painted white and a
mahogany rail. It is a simple little hall, small,
compact, and truly Colonial in its type, with
its Dutch armchair showing pierced slats of Chip-
pendale influence. This chair was probably made
about the time the house was built which was in
the early part of the eighteenth century, the date
not being definitely known.
At the left of the hallway is the living-room,
which is of the simple farmhouse type, lacking a
wainscot but containing a simple mopboard and
paneled door. The wide boards in the flooring
have been retained here as well as in the dining-
room, plain-edged boards that, while laid close
together, still show a crack between. This living-
room was in the early days used as living-room
and bedroom ; the space at the farther end, which
was used as a closet into which the bed folded
during the daytime, is now utilized as a bookcase
and makes an interesting feature. The slat-back
chair beside the bookcase is the most valuable
type of its period, being made about 1750. It
shows a turned knob. In chairs of this kind,
which were more commonly used during the first
part of the eighteenth century, the number of
slats varied, the most common having three, while
the rarest have five.
The gate-legged table is a good example, while
the Chippendale chair is unusual, showing very
graceful effect, with wonderfully delicate carving,
and being of the best design. An equally rare
example of a Hepplewhite chair, which is beauti-
fully carved, is contained in the same room. In
addition to these are banister and Sheraton chairs,
as well as a fine example of girandole, uncommon
from the fact that there is a pair exactly alike,
and they are seen one on either side of the room.
Opposite the living-room is the dining-room,
and here the same correct furnishing has been
used. The plain wainscot is of the early type,
the lighting has Colonial fixtures, while the chairs
HENRY W. WRIGHT'S HOUSE
are painted Sheraton, being most unusual in that
there is a whole set of the same pattern which
are all originals. A wonderfully fine example of a
mahogany dining-table has been utilized as a
serving-table, and the silver is all of the Colonial
pattern. Here one finds the low stud, but none
of the exposed beams often found in old houses.
At the rear of the dining-room is the kitchen
which is equipped with modern appliances. Lead-
ing from the dining-room at the left is a small
room which has been fitted up as a music-room
and den combined. It is a most livable room,
there being no stiffness or formality in the arrange-
ment of the furniture, and each piece of furniture
proves a fitting foil for its mate. The wall hang-
ings are not of the Colonial type ; they are plain
gray and bring out to advantage the setting of
furniture, pictures, and ornaments in the room.
In the upper hall is found a fine old carved
chest of the Jacobean period. This is considered
one of the best examples of chests in existence,
being wonderfully carved, of solid oak, and prob-
ably used originally as a dower chest. Leading
off from the hallway are four large, square cham-
bers, each one correctly furnished with Colonial
pieces, many of which are family heirlooms.
Here, where modern lighting has been introduced,
the Colonial type of fixtures has been carefully
maintained. In all the house there is no central
light, all the lights being at the side. In the
upper story as well as the lower, the wide flooring
has been retained, as it was found in such excellent
condition it could easily be used.
The steeple-topped andirons- in the simple
fireplace, the painted mirror, and the old brass
candlesticks of one chamber are most appropri-
ately chosen. The Field bed has a canopy of
white with ball fringe which is an exact replica
of the old-time draping. Rag mats have been
used for the floor; they are not the common
braided ones but woven rugs which are more
suitable. Alcoved recesses are shown on either
side of the fireplace ; in one of them a six-legged,
high chest of drawers with china steps, designed
about 1720, shows drop handles, and is ornamented
with rare old family china. On the opposite
side is a wing or Martha Washington chair of
the Sheraton type. The bureau, 1815, is a fine
example of the period, while the swell-front,
Hepplewhite bureau with the oval, pressed-brass
handles and the painted mirror above are in
conformity with the general scheme. A banister-
HENRY W. WRIGHT'S HOUSE
backed chair with a rush bottom stands at one side
of the bed.
Very unusual is the Colonial wall-paper which
is found in a second chamber, while eighteenth-
century andirons are used in the fireplace which
is still of the original size and which shows a
plain Colonial mantel. In this chamber, as in
the other, there is a very plain wainscot of boards
placed horizontally. An Empire bed which has
wonderfully beautiful carving is shown in this
room, and also a very unusual chair known
as a comb-back rocker and dating about 1750*
The rugs here are of the Arts and Crafts style,
while the bureau and writing-table have cabriole
legs and secret drawers, the central one with
rising sun or fan carving.
Every piece in this house is genuine, for they
all are heirlooms or pieces that have been care-
fully chosen, since the owner is an expert in deter-
mining period and correct types. It is a well-
known fact that to-day one has to be a careful
student of furniture not to be deceived. The
popularity of the Colonial period, more especially
since the vogue of the modified Colonial house,
has led many a fakir to reproduce the lines of
the genuine antique. Skilful workmen are em-
ployed to manufacture these pieces, and they are
able, by imitating worm-holes, dentation, and
other distinguishing marks, to put on the market
pieces whose genuineness even the antique dealer
is puzzled to decide.
All through the country the value of antiques
is becoming better and better known, so that it
is far more difficult to obtain bargains than it
was even five years ago. To-day, so great has
grown the demand, people who before were una-
ware of the worth of their heirlooms have been
led to overestimate their value and they now
ask fabulous sums for pieces hitherto neglected
Two Noteworthy Chambers
THE HENRY W. WRIGHT HOUSE
THE ROWLAND S. CHANDLER HOUSE
WHEN your house is remodeled, be careful what
kind of paint you use for both outside and inside
finish. A variation from the right tone will mar
the whole effect. So much depends on this that
one should not copy from houses of to-day but
turn back to the style of a century ago, so that
in this particular, at least, the house shall corre-
spond with the old Colonial idea.
Few, if any, care to use a weathered exterior,
that is, unless the scientifically treated shingles
that will soon turn a silver gray are employed.
There are two reasons why your house should
be painted : one is that it preserves the wood and
if rightly treated is fireproof; the second is that
it gives the finish a far better appearance than
it would have without paint. Every house needs
paint of some kind to improve its appearance,
whether it be oil paint or stain.
There are many different brands found to-day,
and they are of every conceivable color, so that
you have a wide range of choice. It is always safe
to use one made by a reliable concern or one hand-
mixed, if both white lead and linseed oil are
absolutely pure. There is nothing more variable
in quality than paint, and even experts are puzzled
at times and it is necessary to have a chemical
analysis in order to determine between good and
For exterior use the proper kind should be a
mixture of pure white lead and linseed oil or pure
zinc white and linseed oil. Manufacturers, more
especially those of white lead paints, will insist
that theirs is the only kind to use, and the zinc
paint producers will do likewise, but a reliable
dealer or architect will inform you correctly. One
of the first colors to be used on any house is
white, in all probability there is nothing a&
durable as this. The reason for it is that the
ingredients used have greater wearing qualities
than any of the other pigments. There is a
complaint that it is apt to yellow with age and
become discolored, but in reality it remains
unchanged longer than almost any other color.
Green blinds secure the. best effect, or trellises that
relieve the monotony of the white. This the old
farmers realized, and it is one of the reasons why
THE ROWLAND S. CHANDLER HOUSE
it was so much used. If your house is shingled,
there are a great many shades of gray that need
a white trim, and there is no color that harmonizes
with every other as well as this.
There are a great many reliable stains for
shingles; do not let the painter mix the stain
himself, because that carefully prepared by a
manufacturer is generally superior both in color
and durability. In mixing these stains, both
creosote and oil are used, there being on the market
to-day excellent brands of both kinds. i
The repainting of the country house is a neces-
sary evil that recurs periodically. We tire of
one color as we weary of an old dress, and this
leads to a different tone of coloring each time.
For instance, the white house is changed possibly
to a Colonial yellow or a gray, and with its new
coat it seems to take on a new lease of life. The
fall of the year is the best time for the painting,
as the dry October weather is especially suited
for good results. During the summer months
there are insects flying about and too much dust.
By October the outside has had time to cool after
the heat and is in good condition for treatment.
The time to paint is before the house gets shabby,
when the paint is powdery or porous. It can be
tested with either a knife or the finger, and if
the old paint chips off, soaks up water, or can be
rubbed off like a powder with the finger, it no
longer protects the wood and needs another coat.
With this covering of paint, wood will last prac-
tically forever, and as lumber is expensive, it is
greater economy to keep your house properly
The cost of painting is a serious problem to
many house owners and is never alluded to by
an agent when selling a house ; to the novice it does
not occur, so eager is he to secure for himself a
new home. At the end of the second year, its
freshness is dimmed through exposure to wind
and storm, and at the end of the third season, it
is shabby and needs a new covering. In attempt-
ing to figure the cost, it is necessary to ascertain
the square feet on the outside. Any painter has
a rule for this, making allowances for errors.
Windows and doors are considered as plain sur-
faces that are to be treated to paint even though
only the sills and sides are in need of it.
Good exterior paint costs from three to five
dollars a gallon, and a painter can put on one
hundred square yards in a day for the first coat
and seventy-five for the second. This gives the
l2 4 6]
THE ROWLAND S. CHANDLER HOUSE
house owner a little idea of what it will cost,
although it is best to make a regular bargain with
the architect to cover this expense.
For interior finish, white is always preferable.
It seems to be the proper treatment for any
Colonial home. To be sure, if you are planning
for a den, a dark color can be used and also a stain
for the kitchen part of the house.
In searching for a farmhouse to be converted
into a country home, Mr. Rowland S. Chandler
of Boston chanced upon an old house at Need-
ham, Massachusetts, that seemed to meet his re-
quirements. It was a square-framed house, two
stories and a half in height, with a kitchen ell at
the rear. It was not handsome but quite ordi-
nary in appearance and without any unusual
exterior features. It was not even a seventeenth-
century house but was built in 1801, and it was
in such good condition and the frame was so sound
that it hardly deserved the term "old."
The farmhouse fronted the southwest, so that
its main rooms were dark, with little sunlight,
while the rear was flooded with light and very
cheerful. There were delightful views from this
part of the house which overlooked a merry,
gurgling brook, the mill-pond, and the distant
hills. But this idea had not entered the minds
of the former owners, who had given little con-
sideration to the subject and with no forethought
had inserted only two small windows, one in the
kitchen and the other in a bedroom. Evidently
their idea was to sacrifice view to arrangement, for
to their minds, houses should be built parallel
to the street and with the "best room" at the
The grounds showed little care, but in remodeling
a brick-paved terrace was arranged at the left
just outside the original parlor. An old-fashioned
garden was planted near the kitchen end, and a
trellis enclosed the clothes-yard. The grounds
in front of the house have been laid out in well-
trimmed lawns, while a brick walk now leads from
the sidewalk to the house. A feature of the house
is a large, overhanging elm which affords shade
and picturesqueness ; fresh shrubbery has been
attractively planted, and vines trained to clamber
over latticed work and the trellised porch which
is at the front of the house. Dormer windows
have been added to the roof, and the simple little
farmhouse has been converted into a most attrac-
tive all-the-year-round home.
In the process of remodeling, the original house
THE ROWLAND S. CHANDLER HOUSE
THE ROWLAND S. CHANDLER HOUSE
was left unchanged, and additions were depended
upon for development. A good-sized porch with
brick floor and high-backed settles at the side
replaced the unattractive, old-time entrance, while
the dormers relieved the long, monotonous roof-
line and afforded light to the apartment constructed
from the formerly unfinished attic space. Just
outside the original parlor, beside the shed space,
an addition has been built that runs midway
of the shed to the line of the chimney in the parlor,
and without a large covered veranda is added.
To the kitchen ell an addition of about four feet
was made to provide space for a vestibule within
the new back door and also to secure extra space
at one side of the room so that a window might
Due attention was paid to the rear, in the matter
of windows, and here were laid out the rooms
which would be most frequently used. In conse-
quence of the rearrangement, the interior is prac-
tically wholly changed. The shed was remodeled
into a charming sewing-room that opens at one
side on to a veranda, and the new addition was
combined with the little bedroom and a small
portion from the parlor to secure space for a
library. This made possible a doorway to the
dining-room and sewing-room, and a broad open
space to the living-room.
The old-time parlor showed two deep closets
beside the fireplace. One of these was torn out,
a window was inserted in the outer wall, and a
seat was built beneath it. The other was made
into an opening into the library. This arrange-
ment secured additional light and at the same
time permitted a glimpse of the picturesque rear
In the dining-room several alterations were
made, resulting in a complete change in shape
and size. Oblique walls replace the two rear
corners, one containing the doorway leading to
the library, and the other affording entrance and
furnishing some space for the china closet which
was inserted between the dining-room and the
kitchen. The single window on the southeast
was replaced by a semi-octagonal bow recess.
This was fitted with small lights of glass and affords
space for the grouping of many plants and inci-
dentally adds a touch of distinct picturesqueness.
The kitchen received its share of consideration
during the process of remodeling, resulting in
the substitution of a pleasant, convenient apart-
ment in place of the conspicuous, ill-lighted,
THE ROWLAND S. CHANDLER HOUSE
original one. There was added at the right of
the vestibule a built-in refrigerator, and about
the side walls of the room newly built-in cupboards
Two important changes in the body of the
house consisted in the enlargement of the cellar,
made necessary by the greater space required
for the modern heating apparatus, and in the
substitution of the original, small-paned type of
window for the two panes which had been in-
serted to take the place of the old ones.
The entrance hall at the front of the house is a
small apartment hung with landscape paper of the
Colonial period ; a staircase with one landing and a
half turn in its flight, showing white balusters and
mahogany top, leads to the second story. In
the lighting, the Colonial idea is attained by
the use of a lantern, while under the stairs is a
closet opened by a brass door-pull.
At the left is the living-room, with dull red
hangings and a white wainscot that provides a
fitting background for the wonderful old mahog-
any found in this room. There are some rare
Dutch chairs sometimes known as Queen Anne
from the opening that is found on either side of
the central slat, designed about 1710, and the
earliest of that design. There is a refreshing
simplicity and a dignified air to this room, brought
about in part by the simple Colonial fireplace
with its steeple-topped andirons, and the well-
spaced windows that let plenty of sunlight into
On the opposite side of the room is the dining-
room which is finished with tapestry hanging in
dark green, brown, and yellow, with a design of
pine cones and needles that contrasts prettily
with the white wainscot. A slight reduction in
the height of the window casing affords an oppor-
tunity to carry the wall-paper and moldings
across the windows and doors, thus avoiding the
cramped effect of too high window arrangement.
The original floor has been replaced by a new
one, and a cheerful atmosphere has been given
to the room by opening a semicircular bay up for
a small conservatory which can be closed or opened
at pleasure by the use of glass doors.
. The library has been finished in dark brown
with low bookcases extending around part of the
room, corresponding in color with the woodwork.
The hangings are tan color, and the furniture is
partly Colonial and partly modern, to meet the
demands of a den. This is one of the pleasantest
The Living Room
THE ROWLAND S. CHANDLER HOUSE
THE ROWLAND S. CHANDLER HOUSE
THE ROWLAND S. CHANDLER HOUSE
rooms in the house, having a delightful outlook;
combined with the sewing-room and living-room
opening from it, it makes a charming and con-
veniently arranged interior.
The kitchen at the rear of the house has been
altered with the idea of saving steps. This
is shown in the numberless closets at the right,
for flour barrel and other supplies. At the left
is the kitchen cupboard, while the china is in
the built-in closet above and the groceries in the
drawers below. The sink has a shelf underneath
to hold the dishpan and drainer. The whole
color tone, including the beamed ceiling, is a dark
stain with lighter wall finish.
This house is an interesting example of success-
ful and artistic remodeling, the interior and exterior
being in harmony and giving the result of a com-
fortable and attractive home which was secured
at much less cost than if an entirely new house
had been built.
The houses described in this book cover but
the merest fraction of the homes and summer
places evolved from old-fashioned farmhouses.
They are scattered broadcast through New Eng-
land, sometimes isolated on roads which still
retain their country atmosphere, sometimes sur-
rounded by the town which has outgrown its
early limits, and sometimes the center of a large
estate. Each has Its individual charm, its special
beauties, but wherever found these remodeled
farmhouses testify to the stanchness of early
American workmanship and to the appreciation
of modern Americans for their forefathers' handi-
work. Certainly many a one of the latter " builded
better than he knew."
Adams family, 128.
Adden, W. P., 180.
Adden house, W. P., 180-186.
hardware, 184, 185.
Andirons, n, 12, 68, 125, 194,
208-210, 216, 217, 219,
227, 240, 241, 252.
Arches, 81, 119.
Attics, 6, 164, 186, 224, 225,
Barns, 2, 25, 65-70, 137, 191,
Barnard house, George ., 169-
color scheme, 175.
picture effect, 170, 174.
Bathrooms, 14, 25, 35, 47, 97,
202, 204, 218.
Beams, 7, 20, 29, 34, 36, 46,
47> 5S 58, 66, 75, 94, 102,
122, 130, 131, 151, 185,
197, 203, 215.
Bedrooms, 13, 24, 25, 26, 36,
47> S9> 83 108, 121, 122,
133, 148, 164, 175, 195,
206, 218, 230, 239.
Blinds, 79, 237.
slat, 45, 75.
solid, 45, 75.
Boston, Massachusetts, 18, 42,
77, 122, 151.
Boulder Farm, 76-83.
location, 76, 78.
Bradford, Governor, 206.
Breakfast-rooms, 44, 47, 133,
Brett house, Franklin, 201-207.
Brett house, paneling, 207.
Bricks, 126, 132.
Brown, Doctor, 7.
Brown, Davenport, 116.
Brown house, Davenport, 116-
age, 1 1 6.
furnishings, 119, 1 20, 121,
porches, 116, 117, 1 1 8.
Brown, Deacon Philip, 76, 77.
Burroughs, George, 53.
Cape Cod, 33, 105.
Cataumet, Massachusetts, 158.
Ceilings, beamed, 12, 21, 25,
45> 55 96, 152, 153, 162,
205-206, 225, 253.
Cellars, 7, 30, 98, 251.
Chambers, see BEDROOMS.
Chandler house, Howard S.,
dining-room, 250, 252.
kitchen, 253. .
Chandler house, location, 247.
views, 247, 249, 250.
Charles River, Massachusetts,
Chimneys, 7, 9, 18, 19, 31, 43,
5 53> 69-70, 105, 116,
125, 144, 182-183, 203,
217, 237, 249.
Clapboards, 7, 40-41, 106.
Closets, 10, 23, 52, 55, 95, 96,
109, 132, 142, 148, 205,
218, 220-222, 226, 229,
250, 251, 253.
chimney, 57, 218, 222, 226.
china, 35, 46, 57, 68, 120,
153, 172, 185, 197, 220,
corner, 23, 46, 163, 206,
nightcap, 23, 107.
secret, 23, 207, 221.
wainscot, 221, 222.
Concord, New Hampshire, 77.
Cottages, fishermen's, 28.
flecked," 33, 105.
Cupboards, see CLOSETS.
Curtis, Frederick H., 42.
Curtis house, Frederick H.,
lines of, 43-44.
Curtis house, new wing, 44.
Danvers, Massachusetts, 236.
Dens, 12, 46, 58, 83, 104, 121,
131, 173, 193, 216.
Dining-rooms, 10, n, 23, 34,
46, S6-S7> 68, 81-82, 95,
96, 103, 107, 120, 133,
142, 152, 162, 174, 185,
206, 217, 227, 238, 250,
Doors, 6, 10, 32, 45, 71-73, 180.
batten, 72, 122.
French, 98, 107, 133.
front, 1 8, 54, 71, 92, 106,
150, 161, 178, 192, 202.
glass, 12, 34, 47, 58, 68, 225,
Door-frames, 54, 73, 117, 157.
Door lights, bull's-eye, 72, 92.
fanlight, 117, 192, 225.
side, 73, 117.
Dover, Massachusetts, 42, 65,
Dudley, Harry, 77.
Duxbury, Massachusetts, 88,
Ells, 8, 9, 43, 44, 51, 53, 66,
78, 83, 91, 98, 116, 134,
139, 145, 148, 150, 161,
181, 212, 217, 249.
Everett, Edward, 151.
Farmhouses, architectural treat-
ment, 71, ico, 138, 146.
axis, 50-51, 1 1 6.
Colonial, 49, 223.
construction, 49-51, 116, 147,
cottages, 28, 29.
frame, 7, 106.
Georgian, 51, 75, 76, 83, 116.
heating, 48, 59, 62-65, 102,
individuality, 84-88, 146,
lighting, 48, 102, 103, 109,
192, 196, 251.
lines, 2, 3, 8, 15, 28, 29, 38,
location, 8, 16, 17, 18, 33,
41-42, 53, 62, 65, 66, 76,
78, 88-89, 105, 116, 127,
136, 138, 143, 149, 158,
169, ISO, I9O, 201, 212,
223, 236, 247.
remodeling, 8, 9-14, 19-26,
34-36, 43-48, 52, 54-60,
66-70, 78-83, 90-99, 101-
104, 105-108, 111-123, 130-
I34> I39-I45, 147, I50-i54>
159-164, 170-174, 182-186,
201-207, 214-219, 223-230,
Fireplace fittings, 68, 82, 125,
126, 131, 208, 209, 210-
211, 2l6, 217.
Fireplaces, 3, 11, 13, 22, 24,
3i> 35> 46, 50, 55> 56, 58,
62, 67, 68, 80, 82, 95,
107, 120, 121, 122, 124-
127, 130, 142, 143, 144,
153, 157, 162, 175, 185,
188, 193, 205, 218, 227,
230, 240, 250, 252.
Fences, 106, 123, 137, 140, 144,
Flagstones, 75, 167, 224.
Fletcher, Grace, 77.
Floors, 21, 30, 32, 35, 46, 55,
82, 114, 132, 134, 142, 144,
198-200, 228, 237, 240,
brick, 44, 118.
tiled, 117, 212, 216.
Flower-boxes, 118, 134, 191.
French and Indian War, 23.
Frieze, 22, 24, 25, 216.
Fuller, Mrs. Genevieve, 65.
Furniture, 22, 56, 59, 80, 81,
83, 108, 118, 119, 120,
121, 132, 133, 139, 152,
163, 184, 194, 196, 205,
206, 215, 219, 231-235,
237, 238, 239, 240, 241,
Chippendale, 13, 134, 232,
Empire, 80, 120, 164, 175,
234, 235, 241.
Field, 121, 196, 240.
Furniture, Hepplewhite, 57, 134,
206, 232, 238, 240.
Mission, 227, 228.
old-fashioned, 26, 37, 46, 59,
68, 96, 108, 121, 131, 143,
153, 172, 173, 193, 195,
230, 235, 239.
Queen Anne, 120, 251.
Sheraton, II, 47, 48, 119,
122, 134, 153, 233, 238, 239,
white enamel, 48.
willow, 9, 46, 163, 171, 176.
Gables, 38, 40, 41, 66.
Gage, Doctor Homer, 5.
Gardens, 106, 123, 129, 166-
old-fashioned, 6, 19, 98, 140,
143, 160, 184, 195, 213,
water, 9, 19, 213.
Georgetown, Massachusetts, 18.
Girandoles, 120, 238.
Gloucester, Massachusetts, 149.
Green Meadows, 53-60.
Grills, 60, 64.
2 5 8]
Grounds, 9, 18, 89, 118, 122,
123, 129, 134, 135, 137,
138, 140, 141, 150, 159,
167-168, 182, 206, 213,
214, 224, 248.
Hall, George D., 211.
house, see LONE TREE FARM.
Hallways, 10, 23, 45, 50, 51,
54, 92, 96, 97, 118, 151,
163, 171, 184, 192, 204,
205, 215, 237, 251.
Hangings, 13, 22, 55, 56, 96,
97, 108, 109, 119, 120,
134, 163, 172, 173, 189,
190, 192, 193, 194, 205,
207, 218, 227, 239, 251,
Hardware, 12, 48, 55, 177-180.
Harvey, Governor Matthew, 77.
Heating, by fireplaces, 62.
hot-air, 48, 59, 64.
hot-water, 63, 64, 204.
steam, 63, 64.
Hinges, H, 180, 184, 227.
H and L, 55, 177, 179, 180,
Hollis, Maine, 190.
Hopkins house, Walter Scott,
closets, 226, 227, 229.
dining-room, 227, 228.
grounds, 224, 225.
hardware, 227, 229.
Hopkins house, living-rooms,
224, 226, 227.
Hopkinton, New Hampshire, 76.
Howard, Philip B., 42.
Hunt, William H., 153.
Ingraham, George Hunt, 8.
Inches, Doctor Charles E., 127.
Inches house, Charles E., 127-
furnishings, 131, 132, 133,
grounds, 129, 134, 135.
Ipswich, Massachusetts, 169.
architectural treatment, 13.
guest house, 14.
iris motive, 9.
lines, 8, 14.
Jewett house, see LIMAVODY.
Josephine, Empress, 235.
Kelly, William, 77.
Killam and Hopkins (Archi-
Kimball, Mrs. William Otis, 20.
Kitchens, 10, 36, 44, 50, 95,
98, 1 08, 130, 148, 204,
239, 250, 253.
Kittredge, Mabel L., 33.
Kittredge house, 33-37.
chimney, 36, 37.
lines, 3 4.
Lafayette, General, 153.
Latches, 12, 48, 55, 177, 179,
Lavatories, 10, 185.
Lean-to, Dutch, 18.
Libraries, 10, 12, 22, 46, 104,
candles, 48, 109.
lamps, 48, 109.
lanterns, 192, 196, 251.
age, 1 8.
bedrooms, 25, 26.
lounge room, 25.
Missionary room, 24.
"priest hole," 23.
Lincoln, Roland C., 149.
Mrs. Roland C., 152.
Little Orchard, 149-154.
furnishings, 152, 153.
Living-rooms, 10, n, 21, 22,
34, 45 55 58, 67, 81, 94,
95, 103, 107, 119, 132, 153,
184, 194, 203, 204, 205,
214, 215, 226, 237, 251.
outdoor, 8, 9, 12, 21, 44, 68,
79, 118, 139, 142, 144,
151, 171, 224.
Loeffler, Charles Martin, 137,
138, 142, 144.
Loeffler house, 136-146.
atmosphere, 141, 145.
grounds, 140, 141.
location, 136, 138, 143.
music room, 144.
Londonderry, New Hampshire,
Lone Tree Farm, 211-219.
smoke-house, 214, 215.
Lone Tree Farm, remodeling,
vistas, 216, 217.
Magnolia, Massachusetts, 149.
Mantels, 157, 216, 217, 241.
Medfield, Massachusetts, 116,
Morning-rooms, 10, 12, 44, 175,
Music-rooms, 144, 196, 239.
Nawn Farm, 65-70.
location, 65, 66.
windows, 66, 70.
Needham, Massachusetts, 247.
New York City, 105.
North Duxbury, Massachusetts,
Nurseries, 121, 186.
Outbuildings, 7, 91, 99, 138.
Ovens, brick, n, 12, 82, 127,
131, 181, 217, 229.
Paint, 9, 21, 42, 45, 134, 140,
161, 191, 202, 203, 214,
Paneling, 12, 23, 55, 58, 94,
95, 120, 130, 154, 162,
207, 217, 219, 221, 222,
Parlors, 50, 80, 105, 163, 229, 250.
sun, 216, 236.
removal of, 20, 34, 46, 52,
54, 82, 102, 103, 203, 204.
Pergolas, 123, 140, 203, 207.
Pewter, 46, 57, 131.
Piazza, see PORCHES.
Porch columns, 44, 73, 78, 79,
92, in, 112, 114, 117, 224.
Porches, 3, 34, 40, 42, 47, 79,
93, 103, 106, 111-116, 117,
138, 139, 150, 161, 170,
183, 184, 192, 202, 212,
213, 224, 236, 249.
Colonial, 8, 44, 92, 204, 214.
Georgian, 73, 78, ill, 112.
sleeping, 40, 44, 47, 59, 67,
79, no, 115, 117, 140,
types of, 112.
Porch railings, 114.
Putnam, John Pickering, 122.
barn, 196, 197.
china, 195, 196.
furnishings, 193, 194, 196.
wall-papers, 193, 194.
Quincy, Massachusetts, 128.
Reading, Massachusetts, 180,
Reception-rooms, 56, 104, 153,
Revolution, American, 6, 29,
Roofs, 19, 29, 31, 34, 38-40,
43, 44, 66, 91, 113, 148,
190, 224, 226.
gambrel, 38, 149, 181.
overhang, 41, 75.
pitched (gable), 6, 38, 44,
91, 105, 139, 202, 237.
Rugs, Arts and Crafts, 24.
Oriental, 55, 200, 201, 205,
rag, 46, 48, 59, 108, 134, 162,
192, 200, 201, 205, 240.
Salem, Massachusetts, 150, 235.
Saugus, Massachusetts, 126.
Screen, Japanese, 13.
Servants' rooms, II, 43, 47,
83, 108, 134, 225.
Service departments, 10, n, 43,
59, 69, 78, 103, 116, 121,
171, 175, 191, 206.
Shaw, Mrs. Josephine Hartwell,
Shingles, 41, 91, 106, 149, 243,
Shrewsbury, Massachusetts, 6,
Shrubbery, 167, 168, 213, 224,
Shutters, see BLINDS.
Sleeping-porches, see PORCHES.
Smith, Nora, 195.
South Dennis, Massachusetts,
South Yarmouth, Massachu-
setts, 33, 105.
Spencer, Robert, 105.
Spencer house, 105-109.
furniture, 108, 109.
new wing, 105, 106.
Staircases, 4, 10, 23, 45, 50, 51,
68, 80, 93, 107, 118, 132,
136, 142, 151, 153, 184,
192, 214, 251.
Stud, 30, 66, 106, 117.
low, 13, 44, 52, 56, 102, 152,
154, 205, 239.
Three Acres, 88-99.
location, 88, 89.
windows, 92, 97.
"Tired of Work" (picture), 153.
Trees, 4, 15, 18, 19, 42, 78, 88,
91, 105, 123, 127, 128, 129,
134, 140, 141, 144, 150,
167, 212, 213, 236, 248.
Verandas, see PORCHES.
Wainscot, 22, 35, 46, 55, 57,
80, 81, 118, 120, 130, 143,
I5S-I57> 163, 173, 192,221,
226, 238, 241, 251, 252.
Wakefield, F. M., 42.
Walls, 29, 41, 46, 47, 67, 69,
83, 96, 130, 133, 148, 155-
157, i73 215.
burlap, 23, 45.
exterior, 40, 41.
grass-cloth, 47, 67, 143.
painted, 21, 24, 25, 35, 68.
papered, 23, 45, 48, 55, 56,
57> 59> 69, 81, 83, 119,
122, 163, 227, 228.
plastered, 36, 107, 156.
sheathed, 144, 155.
stone, 128, 140, 149, 182,
Wall-papers, 3, 20, 23, 48, 80,
97, 132, 188-190.
Colonial, 46, 82, 172, 184,
1 88, 196, 241.
landscape, 21, 57, 59, 119,
164, 175, 193, 194, 251.
Morris, 151, 152.
Wall-papers, Mother Goose,
Walpole, Massachusetts, 127.
Water supply, 17, 204.
Webster, Daniel, 77.
White house (Salem), 150.
Wiggin, Kate Douglas, 190,
Window casings, 74.
muntins, 73, 74.
Windows, 6, 9, 34, 35, 52, 58,
66, 73, 78, 102, 119, 141,
148, 154, 218, 226.
bay, 92, 224, 250, 252.
casement, 74, 93, 94, 97, 193.
dormer, 8, 34, 36, 40, 54, 92,
97, 106, 115, 154, 161,
171, 213, 224, 248.
French, 102, 143, 145, 163,
172, 174, 206.
oval, 44, 112.
small-paned, 24, 34, 74, 132,
228, 236, 251.
triple, 45, 69, 82, 107.
Window-seats, 36, 58, 67, 119,
153, 194, 216, 218, 250.
Wings, see ELLS.
Wood, cypress, 41.
oak, 155, 199, 200.
swamp, 21, 125.
pine, hard, 200.
North Carolina, 68, 199.
pumpkin, 4, 158.
white, 2, 7, 41, 156.
Woodwork, 3, 4, 7, II, 12, 13,
22, 23, 24, 25, 35, 45, 46,
48, 55> 56, 58, 59, 68, 80,
82, 95, 107, 120, 121, 122,
131, 142, 155-158, 165, 184,
192, 215, 219, 226, 227, 228.
Worcester, Massachusetts, 5.
Wren, Sir Christopher, 146.
Wright, Henry W., 236.
Wright house, 236-241.
lighting, 238, 240.
type, 236, 237. '
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7205 Remodeled farmhouses